===================
===================

Swift 5 Help

===================
===================


Online Swift Compilers

Swift onlinegdb IDE (We will use this one)
Swift IDE JDoodle (backup)

Local Swift Compiler - Xcode (it's in the app store)

This is only available in the Apple App Store and is only available for computers. It should be available for the iPad, iPad Air, and iPad Pro in the Fall. You will need to become a developer. You can choose the free account. You only need the paid account if you plan to upload your apps for apple to review (and if they approve it then they will put it in the store for you). You Tube Video free developer account Apple Website for creating a free account How to put your app on your iPhone for testing

Online Help Sites for Swift

SwiftHelp Website for our camp
Tutorials Point tutorials
Online Book

Importance of Programming and a Brief Introduction

Importance of Programming

Swift Programming Assignments for this Workshop

Programming Assignments (more to come)
Go to Last Programming Assignment

Data Types
Variables
Operators
Comparison or Relational Operators
Logical Operators
Comments
Hello World
Printing on the Console
Optionals
Math Stuff
import
type casts
Constants
String
Trimming white space from a String
User Input in a Terminal App
Referencing GUI Objects for Input
if else statements
Ternary Operators
Ranges
For Loops
While Loops
Math Functions
Number Conversions
Date and Time Functions
Escape Sequences
Creating Functions
Functions with Arguments
Built in Functions
Lists (Arrays)
Tuples (Immutable Lists)
Dictionaries
Lists 2D(Arrays 2D)
Classes
Reading from the Console
Files
Some Simple Programs
More Labs



Back to the Top

===================
===================

Data Types

===================
===================


Type Swift name Short form How it’s used Integer Int Int For storing whole numbers and negative numbers, for Double Double Dbl To store decimal values like 12.54, 8.23, -2.68, 89.99, 3.14159 Boolean Bool Bool Used for storing true/false values. String String Str Strings are used to store text. You will need to put import UIKit at the top of your program for iPhone and iPad apps.
===================
===================

Operators

===================
===================


Arithmetic Operators ( +, -, /, //, *, **)
Assignment Operators (=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, <<=, >>=, &=, ^=, |=)
You can NOT mix data types with these operators. So both operands MUST BE OF THE SAME TYPE. (Both Double or both Int) (Both String if you are joining together) Binary operators need to have operands on both sides. 5 + 7 // 5 is an operand + is an operator 7 is an operand var x = 5 + 7 // x will receive 12 var y = 3 * 12 // y will receive 36 var z = x + y // z will receive 48 NOTE: Operators cannot operate on different types when you are using variables. You must convert the variables to matching types. Example: var x = 5 var y = 3.14159 var z = x + y // Not Ok (int + double) print(x + y) // Not Ok (int + double) var z = Double(x) + y // Ok var z = x + Int(y) You do not have to match types with constants. Example: print(7 + 3.14159) // Ok Also, you must be consistent with spaces. var x = 5 var y = 8 x + y Ok x+ y Not Ok x +y Not Ok x+y Ok
===================
===================

Comparison or Relational Operators

===================
===================



Relational or Comparison Operators (==, !=, >, <, >=, <=)
Sample 1: var x = 8 var y = 12 if x > y { print(x, "is bigger than", y) } Sample 2: var x = 8 var y = 12 if x > y { print(x, "is bigger than",y) } else { print(y, "is bigger than",x) } Sample 3: var x = 8 var y = 12 if x > y { print(x, "is bigger than",y) } else if y > x { print(y, "is bigger than",x) } else { print(y, "is the equal to",x) } Sample 4: var temp = 75 if temp >= 90 { print("It is", temp, "degrees outside. It is so hot!") print("I really hate this weather unless I am at the pool!") } else if temp >= 80 { print("It is", temp, "degrees outside. It is a little warm!") } else if temp >= 65 { print("It is", temp, "degrees outside. It is a great day!") print("I really love this weather!") } else if temp >= 40 { print("It is", temp, "degrees outside. It is a little cool out there!") print("I am not very fond of cool weather!") } else { print("It is", temp, "degrees outside. It is very cold out there!") print("I really hate this weather!") } Sample 5: var let x = 9 var if x == 10 { print("x is 10") } else if x == 9 { print("x is 9") } else { print("x is not 9 or 10") } Example 1: var x:Int = 25 var y:Int = 8 if x > y { print(String(x) + " is greater than " + String(y)) // or print("\(x) is greater than \(y))" } Example 2: var x:Int = 25 var y:Int = 8 if x > y { print(String(x) + " is greater than " + String(y)) // or print("\(x) is greater than \(y))" } Sample 3: var x = 8 var y = 12 var z = 10 if x > y && x > z { print(x, "is bigger than", y, "and bigger than", z, ".") } else if y > x && y > z { print(y, "is bigger than", x, "and bigger than", z, ".") } else if z > x && z > y { print(z, "is bigger than", x, "and bigger than", y, ".") } else if x == y && x == z { print(x, y, z, "are all equal") } else if x == y { print(x, y, "are equal") } else if x == z { print(x, z, "are equal") } else if y == z: { print(y, z, "are equal") } else { print("It should not ever get here.") }
===================
===================

Logical Operators

===================
===================



Logical Operators (&&, ||, ! )
// Not And Or ! (not operator) && (and operator) || (or operator) Examples: !true is false !false is true 5 > 4 is true 5 >= 4 is true 5 < 4 is false
===================
===================

Bitwise Operators

===================



Bitwise Operators (&, |, ^, ~, <<, >>)




Back to the Top
===================

Math Stuff

===================
===================


print("Let's do some Math")
print()

print("3 + 4 - 5")
print(3 + 4 - 5)
print()

print("It knows about my dear aunt Sally")
print("7 - 5 * 2")
print(7 - 5 * 2)
print()

print("1/2 * 5")
print(1 / 2 * 5)
print()

// gives back a random Int in the range of 1 to 100 inclusive
let x = Int.random(in:1...100)
print(x)



Back to the Top
===================

Math Functions

===================
===================



NOTE: You will need to import the 
Foundation class to use these functions.

import Foundation


sqrt(25)

pow(2,3)

floor(23.7)

ceil(23.7)

abs(-21)

max(10,20)

min(10,20)

// gives back a random Int in the range of 1 to 100 inclusive
let x = Int.random(in:1...100)


Also, for pi, use:
Double.pi
Float.pi
CGFloat.pi



Samples:

print(pow(2, 3))

print(sqrt(16))

print(Double.pi)

print(abs(-20))



Back to the Top
===================

Date and Time

===================
===================





Back to the Top
===================
===================

Comments

===================
===================


// This is a one line comment 
/*
Swift comments can also
span multiple lines
*/


Back to the Top
========================
========================

import

========================
========================



The keyword import is used to allow you
access to a library (which cointains 
functions).


Converting to Bases
-------------------
After the radix: put your base to convert the int into

let hexString = String(31, radix: 16, , uppercase: true)
print(hexString)  // prints 1F


NOTE: You must unwrap it!
var x = Int("A2", radix: 16)!
print(x) // prints 162  (10 x 16 + 2 x 1)



Back to the Top


===================
===================

type casts

===================
===================




Example 1:
var x = 12
var y = Double(x) // y is now 12.0


Example 2:
var x = 12.5
var y = Int(x)  // y is now 12


Example 3:
var s = String(12) // s is now "12"


Example 4:
print("Enter your first name: ", terminator:"")
var firstName = readLine(strippingNewline:true)!
print(firstName)				 




Back to the Top


===================
===================

Constants

===================
===================




Use the let keyword instead of var

You must assignment it a value.


let x = 5
let y = 12



Back to the Top


===================
===================

User Input in a Terminal App

===================
===================




NOTE: readLine always returns a String as an Optional,
      so you may want to unwrap it use a if let 
      statement to see if it is valid data.


Example 1:
print("Enter your first name: ", terminator:"")
var firstName = readLine(strippingNewline:true)!
print(firstName)				 


Example 2:
print("Enter the value for x: ", terminator:"")
var x = Int(readLine(strippingNewline:true)!)!
print(x)				 






Back to the Top
================================= ================================= =================================

Number Conversions with a String

================================= ================================= =================================


// converts a String that holds a number into an int
let numberAsString:String = "30"
let someNumber:Int = Int(numberAsString)! //30


// converts an Int to a String that holds the Int
let number:Int = 30
let numberAsString = String(number)

// To convert an Int to a Double, use Double(30)
// You can also convert to other types like Float(30)

// you can convert to other bases with String(Int, radix: base)
let b2  = String(12, radix: 2)  // converts 12 to "1100"
let b8  = String(12, radix: 8)  // converts 12 to "14"
let b16 = String(12, radix: 16) // converts 12 to "c"



===================
===================

Ranges

===================
===================





5...8      // 5 6 7 8
5..<8   // 5 6 7

Example 1: prints 5 6 7 8
for i in 5...8
{
    print(i)
}

Example 2: prints 5 6 7
for i in 5..<8
{
    print(i)
}


Back to the Top


===================
===================

Hello World

===================
===================


print("Hello World")


Back to the Top



===================
===================

Variables

===================
===================




   A variable refers to a place in RAM memory
   where you can store information (numbers,
   strings of characters, etc.)  Think of box
   that holds data.
   
   Variables have names so that us humans can 
   refer to them.  Variable names should be 
   descriptive of what kind of information they 
   refer to.
   
   Names must start with a letter of the alphabet.
   After that you can have more letters or numbers or
   the underscore(_) character.  However, you can not
   have a space character or any other special characters
   in your name.  We should always use lower case letters,
   except on word boundaries for long names (camel case).  
   Variables can not be key words of the programming language.
   Also, names are case sensitive.  So, X and x are actually
   different names.
   
   Some examples of variable names:
   x
   y
   answer
   b
   num
   totalSum
   total_sum
   

    answer       x          y
   --------   --------   --------
   |  12  |  |   7   |   |  5   |
   --------   --------   --------
   
   
   
   Some examples of illegal variable names:
   total Sum
   total-sum
   num@
   sum!
   

Types:
------
Int
Double
String


let x = 5     //  Int 5 is assigned to the storage box called x (constant)

var y = 5.2   //  Double 5.2 is assigned to the storage box called y

var s = "Hello World"      # String "Hello World" is assigned to s
let str = "Hello World"    # string "Hello World" is assigned to str



Back to the Top


=======================
=======================

Escape Sequences

=======================
=======================

Escape sequence Meaning
=======================


\\		\ character
\' ' character
\" " character
\n Newline
\t Horizontal tab


Back to the Top


=======================
=======================

Printing on the Console

=======================
=======================




print("Hello World") // prints Hello World

print(2 * 3 + 5)     // prints 11

NOTE: You can NOT mix data types!

Use interpolation or a typcast instead.

let x = 5

print("The value of x is " + x)   // ERROR String + Int 
print("The value of x is " + String(x) + ".")  // prints The value of x is 5.

// This is interpolation \(x)   \(x) means print the value of x 
print("The value of x is \(x).")  // prints The value of x is 5.







Back to the Top


====================
====================

For Loops

====================
====================



for constant name in collection or range 
{ 
	// code to be executed 
}


=========================================================
Example: index would be 1 2 3 4 5
for index in 1...5 
{ 
	print("Value of index is \(index)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
Example:  index would be 1 2 3 4
for index in 1..<5 
{ 
	print("Value of index is \(index)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
Example:  index would be 5 4 3 2 1
for index in (1...5).reversed()
{ 
	print("Value of index is \(index)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
Example:  index would be 0 2 4 6 8 10
for index in stride(from:0, to:10, by:2)
{ 
	print("Value of index is \(index)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
Example:  i would be 0 1 2 3 4
let numbers = [2, 3, 5, 7, 9]
for i in numbers.indices 
{ 
	print("Value of index is \(i)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
Example:  num would be 2 3 5 7 9
let numbers = [2, 3, 5, 7, 9]
for num in numbers 
{ 
	print("Value of number is \(num)") 
}
=========================================================




Back to the Top

 
======================= =======================

Referencing GUI Objects

======================= =======================


NOTE: When you get text data from a GUI object,
      it will come back as an Optional type.
      You will need to generally unwrap it with 
      the ! operator or use an if let statement.
    
NOTE: If you use a type cast to convert a number
      that is stored as a String, you will get back
      an Optional type.  
      You will need to generally unwrap it with 
      the ! operator or use an if let statement.

      
@IBOutlet var outputLabel: UILabel!
@IBOutlet var userTextField: UITextField!


var str = userTextField.text!
outputLabel.text = str


var numberAsString = userTextField.text!
if let number = Int(numberAsString)
{
	// do something useful with this number
	// the number is a valid number at this point
	
	
}
else
{
    // show an error to the user
}



// Clearing a Text Field 
userTextField.text = ""  

// NOTE: DO NOT PUT A SPACE " " in a Text Field





Back to the Top

 
====================
====================

While Loops

====================
====================




You can break out of a loop with the 
keyword  break 

You can continue a loop with the 
keyword  continue (come through again).


while condition 
{ 
	// Swift statements go here 
}



=========================================================
var x = 0
while x != 5
{
	// do something
	x = x + 1
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
var myCount = 0 
while myCount < 100 
{ 
	myCount = myCount + 1 
}
=========================================================




=================================
=================================
repeat loops (or do while loops)
=================================
=================================


repeat 
{
	// Swift statements here 
} while conditional expression


In the repeat ... while example below the loop 
will continue until the value of a variable 
named i equals 0: 

=========================================================
var i = 10 
repeat 
{ 
	--i 
} while (i > 0)
=========================================================




 

Back to the Top
====================
====================

Creating Functions or Methods

====================
====================




func  name of function (_ variableName: variableType,  _ variableName: variableType, ... ) -> return type 
{ 
	// Function code 
}

See the following link for more help.
https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/Functions.html


=========================================================
Example: an example with no parameters and no return type
func sayHello() 
{ 
	print("Hello Swift") }
}

sayHello()  // prints  Hello Swift
=========================================================


=========================================================
// an example with 2 parameters and a String return type
NOTE: _ name means that we do NOT use a label in the 
      call statement
func buildMessage(_ name: String, _ count: Int) -> String 
{
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count).")				 
}

// a call statement with NO labels			 
let message = buildMessage("John", 100)
print(message)
// prints  John, you are customer number 100.
=========================================================



=========================================================
// an example with 2 parameters and a String return type
// NOTE: There is no _ before the variable
func buildMessage(name: String, count: Int) -> String 
{
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)")				 
}

// a call statement	with labels			 
let message = buildMessage(name:"John", count: 100)
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(name: String, _ count: Int) -> String 
{ 
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}
let message = buildMessage(name:"John", 100)
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(username name: String, count: Int) -> String 
{ 
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}
When declared in this way, the external parameter name 
must be referenced when calling the function: 
let message = buildMessage(username: "John", count: 100)
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(username name: String, usercount count: Int) -> String 
{ 
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(name: String = "Customer", count: Int ) -> String 
{ 
	return ("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}

let message = buildMessage(count: 100) 
print(message)
=========================================================




 

Back to the Top
=================================
=================================

Functions with Arguments

=================================
=================================





func  name of function (_ variableName: variableType,  _ variableName: variableType, ... ) -> return type 
{ 
	// Function code 
}

See the following link for more help.
https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/Functions.html


=========================================================
Example: an example with no parameters and no return type
func sayHello() 
{ 
	print("Hello Swift") }
}

sayHello()  // prints  Hello Swift
=========================================================


=========================================================
// an example with 2 parameters and a String return type
NOTE: _ name means that we do NOT use a label in the 
      call statement
func buildMessage(_ name: String, _ count: Int) -> String 
{
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count).")				 
}

// a call statement with NO labels			 
let message = buildMessage("John", 100)
print(message)
// prints  John, you are customer number 100.
=========================================================



=========================================================
// an example with 2 parameters and a String return type
// NOTE: There is no _ before the variable
func buildMessage(name: String, count: Int) -> String 
{
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)")				 
}

// a call statement	with labels			 
let message = buildMessage(name:"John", count: 100)
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(name: String, _ count: Int) -> String 
{ 
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}
let message = buildMessage(name:"John", 100)
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(username name: String, count: Int) -> String 
{ 
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}
When declared in this way, the external parameter name 
must be referenced when calling the function: 
let message = buildMessage(username: "John", count: 100)
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(username name: String, usercount count: Int) -> String 
{ 
	return("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}
=========================================================



=========================================================
func buildMessage(name: String = "Customer", count: Int ) -> String 
{ 
	return ("\(name), you are customer number \(count)") 
}

let message = buildMessage(count: 100) 
print(message)
=========================================================




 

Back to the Top
=================================
=================================

Built in Functions

=================================
=================================



NOTE: You will need to import the 
Foundation class to use these functions.

import Foundation


sqrt(25)

pow(2,3)

floor(23.7)

ceil(23.7)

abs(-21)

max(10,20)

min(10,20)


// gives back a random Int in the range of 1 to 100 inclusive
let x = Int.random(in:1...100)
print(x)


Also, for pi, use:
Double.pi
Float.pi
CGFloat.pi






Back to the Top

=================================
=================================

Lists (Arrays)

=================================
=================================





See more at:
https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/CollectionTypes.html


Example 1: 
----------

var players = [String]()

players.append("Bill")
players.append("Sue")
players.append("Jill")

players[0] = "Tim"

for player in players
{
	print(player)
}


Example 2: 
----------

var players:[String] = ["Bill", "Sue", "Jill"]


players[0] = "Tim"

for player in players
{
	print(player)
}



Methods:
--------

append(object)        - adds a new object to the end of the list
                        you can also do  list += [object]
insert(object, at:1)  - inserts the object at position 1
swapAt(1,3)           - swaps the elements at postions 1 and 3

sort()                - sorts the elements from small to large
min()                 - returns the smallest element
max()                 - returns the largest element

remove(at:2)          - removes the element at position 2
removeAll()           - removes all elements from the list
removeFirst()         - removes and returns the first element
removeLast()          - removes and returns the last element
popLast()             - removes and returns the last element (Optional)

first                 - returns the object in the zero position (Optional)
last                  - returns the object in the last position (Optional)

startIndex            - accesses property, value of starting index
endIndex              - accesses property, value of ending index

isEmpty               - accesses property, value of true if empty
count()               - returns the number of elements in the list

reversed()            - returns the array in the reversed order




=========================================================
var myArray: [String] = ["One", "Two", "Three"]
print (myArray[0])
print (myArray[1])
print (myArray[2])
var entries = myArray.count
=========================================================



=========================================================
var myArray: [String] = ["One", "Two", "Three"]
myArray.append("Four")
myArray.append("Five")
myArray.append("Six")
=========================================================



=========================================================
var myArray: [String] = ["One", "Two", "Three"]
myArray += ["Four", "Five", "Six"]
=========================================================



=========================================================
var myArray: [String] = ["Two", "Three"]
myArray.insert("One", atIndex: 0)
=========================================================



=========================================================
var myArray: [String] = ["One", "Two", "Three"]
myArray.removeAtIndex(1)
for myString in myArray 
{
	print(myString, terminator:" ") // stays on same line
}
=========================================================




Back to the Top


================================= ================================= =================================

Trimming white space from a String

================================= ================================= =================================
	  

// Swift 3
func trim(_ str: String) -> String {
        return str.trimmingCharacters(in: CharacterSet.whitespaces)
}


// Swift 4 and 5
func trim(_ str: String) -> String {
        return str.trimmingCharacters(in: .whitespaces)
}



Back to the Top


=================================
=================================

Tuples (Immutable Lists)

=================================
=================================


	  



Back to the Top



=================================
=================================

Dictionary

=================================
=================================


	  

A dictionary has key-value pairs.
The keys cannot be changed, but the
values can be changed.
If you reference an item and the key
does not exist, you will get an error.

Methods:






Back to the Top


=================================
=================================

Lists 2D (Arrays 2D)

=================================
=================================





Example 1: 
----------

var numbers = [ [80, 90, 95], [83, 87, 91], [93, 95, 97] ]

for r in 0..<numbers.count
{
	for c in 0..<numbers[r].count
	{
		print(numbers[r][c], terminator:" ")
	}
	print() // moves to the next line
}



Example 2: 
----------

var numbers = [[Int]]()
for _ in 1...3 
{
  var row = [Int]()
  
  for _ in 1...4 
  {
    row.append(0)
  }
  numbers.append(row)
}



Example 3: 
----------

var rectangles = [[Rectangle]]()
for _ in 1...3 
{
  var row = [Rectangle]()
  
  for _ in 1...4 
  {
    row.append(Rectangle(15,20))
  }
  rectangles.append(row)
}



Example 4: 
----------

var players = [[String]]()

playersRow = ["Bill", "Sue", "Jill"]
players[0].append(playersRow)

playersRow = ["Sam", "Tia", "Bob"]
players[1].append(playersRow)



for r in 0..<players.count
{
	for c in 0..<players[r].count
	{
		print(players[r][c], terminator:" ")
	}
	print() // moves to the next line
}



Back to the Top


=================================
=================================

Classes

=================================
=================================




// Declaration of a class
// A class is a template that we can use
// at runtime to build a box in RAM memory that can
// hold information about 1 Student (or 1 Person, or 1 grocery item, ...)
//
// THIS BOX (or boxes) that we build at runtime to hold our information is
// called an object.
//
// ANOTHER WAY TO THINK OF A CLASS object is to think of it as a
// container (a box, a sack, a house, a mailbox, ...)

// THINK about building a house (or anything).
// We need a blue print!
// We can store information (with variables)
// and we can store functions to allow us to
// access the data and/or modify the data, or
// do stuff with our data.

// 1 Student Object
//
// We can create the object using the command or instruction:
// var student = Student("Tom", "Baker", "tb78654", 90)
//
// If we have a variable called student that
// refers to this object in RAM memory, we
// use commands or instructions like:
// student.firstName
// student.lastName
// student.grade
//
// This command or instruction would create room in RAM memory that
// could hold our information.  It will run our init function after
// reserving room in the RAM that will put the info in the object
// for us.
//
// The variable named student would actually hold the memory address of where
// the object was created in RAM memory, and thus we say that it refers to
// (or points to) the object.  RAM memory is byte addressable.
// We have byte 0, byte 1, byte 2, ... byte 78456, byte 78455, ...
// The OS determines where our object will be stored in RAM memory.
// The OS keeps a map of all used memory.
// So, maybe we would get a location starting at byte 78456,
// and thus student would hold that number for us.

// student
// ============
// |  78456   |
// ============


//
// student would refer to this object stored at
// memory location 78456

//
// Location 78456
// =====================================
// |   firstName                       |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | "Tom"                     |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   lastName                        |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | "Baker"                   |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   id                          |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | tb78654                   |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   grade                       |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 90                        |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   init                            |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   More functions ...              |
// |                                   |
// =====================================



Example 1:
----------

# A class is sometimes referred to as record.
# A class is a container.  It holds information
# and can have functions.

# So, think of a big box with smaller boxes inside
# to hold the data, and other boxes to hold the 
# computer instructions.

# A variable really just refers to a box that holds
# information. (integers, floats, strings, and even
# objects.

# A function really just refers to a box that holds
# computer instructions.

# A class is like a template that tells the computer
# how to create an object with this information inside
# of it.


import Foundation

// to inherit, do  
// class Person: SuperClass 
// where SuperClass is the name
// of the class that you want to inherit
class Person 
{  

	var firstName = ""  // or  var firstName: String
	var lastName = ""   // or  var lastName : String
	var age = 0         // or  var age: Int
	// etc.
	
	init() 
	{
		firstName = ""
		lastName = ""
		age = 0
	}
	
	
	init(_ firstName:String, _ lastName:String, _ age:Int) 
	{
		self.firstName = firstName
		self.lastName = lastName
		self.age = age
	}


	func getFirstName() -> String {
	
		return firstName
	}


	func getAge() -> Int {
	
		return age
	}

	func setAge(_ age:Int)
	{
	    self.age = age
	}
	
	
	func printMessage() {
		print ("Hello")
	}
	
	// a class or static function
	// you call class functions by using the name
	// of the class
	// var color = Person.getFavoriteColor()
	
    class func getFavoriteColor() -> String 
    {
        return "Red"
    }
}



// In order to create a Person object you can:

var person = Person("Sue", "Baker", 16)

var firstName = person.getFirstName()
person.setAge(17)

print("Your first name is " + firstName)
print("You are \(person.getAge()) years old.")



Example 1: A Book class
=====================
import Foundation

class Book {
	var title: String = ""
	var author: String = ""
	var description: String = ""

    // init constructor 
    
    // getter and setter methods
    
    // helper methods
}



	
	
Example 2:
----------

// A Point class
//
// We can create the object using the command or instruction:
// var point = Point(2, 5)
//
// If we have a variable called point that
// refers to this object in RAM memory, we
// use commands or instructions like:
// point.x
// point.y


// point
// ============
// |  78456   |
// ============


//
// point would refer to this object stored at
// memory location 78456

//
// Location 78456
// =====================================
// |   x                               |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 2                         |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   y                               |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 5                         |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |                                   |
// |   init                            |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   More functions ...              |
// |                                   |
// =====================================


import Foundation

class Point
{

    var x = 0
    var y = 0
    
    
	init(_ x:Int, _ y:Int) 
	{
		self.x = x
		self.y = y
	}


	func getX() -> Int {
	
		return x
	}

	func getY() -> Int {
	
		return y
	}

    func getPoint() -> String
    {
	    return "(" + String(self.x) + ", " + String(self.y) + ")"
	}
}

    
var point1 = Point(3, 5)   // creates the object and puts 3 and 5 inside it
print(point1.x)  //  prints 3  OR point1.getX()
print(point1.y)  //  prints 5  OR point1.getY()


var point2 = Point(6, 7)
print(point2.x)  // prints 6  OR point2.getX()
print(point2.y)  // prints 7  OR point2.getY()


print(point1.getPoint())  // prints (3, 5)
print(point2.getPoint())  // prints (6, 7)


What other classes might be useful for an app to have?


Back to the Top


=================================
=================================

Reading from the Console

=================================
=================================




NOTE: readLine always returns a String as an Optional,
      so you may want to unwrap it use a if let 
      statement to see if it is valid data.


Example 1:
print("Enter your first name: ", terminator:"")
var firstName = readLine(strippingNewline:true)!
print(firstName)				 


Example 2:
print("Enter the value for x: ", terminator:"")
var x = Int(readLine(strippingNewline:true)!)!
print(x)				 


      

Back to the Top


=================================
=================================

if else statements

=================================
=================================



Sample 1:
var x = 8
var y = 12
if x > y
{
    print(x, "is bigger than", y)
}

Sample 2:
var x = 8
var y = 12
if x > y
{
    print(x, "is bigger than",y)
}
else
{
    print(y, "is bigger than",x)
}
    
Sample 3:
var x = 8
var y = 12
if x > y
{
    print(x, "is bigger than",y)
}
else if y > x
{
    print(y, "is bigger than",x)
}
else
{
    print(y, "is the equal to",x)
}    

    
Sample 4:
var temp = 75
if temp >= 90
{
    print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is so hot!")
    print("I really hate this weather unless I am at the pool!")
}
else if temp >= 80
{
    print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a little warm!")
}
else if temp >= 65
{
    print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a great day!")
    print("I really love this weather!")
}
else if temp >= 40
{
    print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a little cool out there!")
    print("I am not very fond of cool weather!")
}
else
{
    print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is very cold out there!")
    print("I really hate this weather!")
}


Sample 5:
var let x = 9 
var if x == 10 
{ 
	print("x is 10") 
} 
else if x == 9 
{ 
	print("x is 9") 
}
else
{
	print("x is not 9 or 10")
}     



Example 1:
var x:Int = 25
var y:Int = 8
if x > y
{
    print(String(x) + " is greater than " + String(y))
    // or  print("\(x) is greater than \(y))"
}

Example 2:
var x:Int = 25
var y:Int = 8
if x > y
{
    print(String(x) + " is greater than " + String(y))
    // or  print("\(x) is greater than \(y))"
}


Sample 3:
var x = 8
var y = 12
var z = 10
if x > y && x > z
{
    print(x, "is bigger than", y, "and bigger than", z, ".")
}
else if y > x && y > z
{
    print(y, "is bigger than", x, "and bigger than", z, ".")
}
else if z > x && z > y
{
    print(z, "is bigger than", x, "and bigger than", y, ".")
}
else if x == y && x == z
{
    print(x, y, z, "are all equal")
}
else if x == y
{
    print(x, y, "are equal")
}
else if x == z
{
    print(x, z, "are equal")
}
else if y == z:
{
    print(y, z, "are equal")
}
else
{
    print("It should not ever get here.")
}    




Back to the Top
==================== ====================

Ternary Operators

==================== ====================



condition ? do true : do false


print("Largest number is \(x > y ? x : y)")

// Example:
// if x = 5 and y = 7
var x = x > y ? 5 : 8 // x will be 8





Back to the Top
=================================
=================================

string

=================================
=================================



NOTE: YOU CAN NOT DIRECTLY ACCESS A 
      CHARACTER IN A String

See the following website for more help.	  
https://swiftludus.org/swfit-strings-tutorial/

NOTE:  In Swift 4, the characters property of the
       String class does NOT exist.  So, instead
	   of using str.characters.count, use str.count
	   

var str:String = "Abc"
OR
var str = "Abc"


if str.isEmpty
{
    // do something
}


var count = str.characters.count // version 3
var count = str.count            // version 4
// count is 3


let upper = str.uppercased()
// upper is "ABC"

let lower = str.lowercased()
// lower is "abc"


// version 3
for character in str.characters {
    print(character)
}

// version 4
for character in str {
    print(character)
}


// version 3
for index in str.characters.indices {
    print("\(str[index])")
}


// version 4
for index in str.indices {
    print("\(str[index])")
}


Example: Swift 4
================
let str = "sunday, monday, happy days"
for char in str {
    print("Found character: \(char)")
}


Example: Swift 4
================
var myIndex = str.startIndex
while myIndex < str.endIndex {
    print(str[myIndex])
    myIndex = str.index(after: myIndex)
}


Example: Swift 4  
================
for myIndex in myString.indices {
    print(myString[myIndex])
}


Example: Swift 4  (BEST WAY)
================
let s = "Hello"
for ch in s {
    print(ch)
}


// prints out ASCII characters
for ch in s.utf8
{
	print(Int(ch))
}

// converts an Int  to a character
let value = UnicodeScalar(97)! // must unwrap
let ch = Character(value)
print(ch) 


let b2  = String(12, radix: 2)  // converts 12 to "1100"
let b8  = String(12, radix: 8)  // converts 12 to "14"
let b16 = String(12, radix: 16) // converts 12 to "c"





Back to the Top


================================= ================================= =================================

Optionals

================================= ================================= =================================


var age: Int?
age = 23

print(age)  // outputs Optional(23)
print(age!) // outputs 23

// a safer way
if let myAge = age {
  print(myAge)   // outputs 23
  print(myAge!)  // compiler ERROR
  print(age)     // outputs Optional(23)
}

=================================

var age: Int?
age = 23

if let myAge = age {
  print(myAge) // outputs 23
}


==================================

var age: Int!
age = 23

print(age) // outputs 23 (auto unwrapped)

if let myAge = age {
  print(age)   // outputs 23 (auto unwrapped)
  print(myAge) // outputs 23
}



var age: Int! // here goes the exclamation mark
age = 23
print(age) // outputs 23 (auto unwrapped)



Back to the Top


=================================
=================================

Reading from and Writing to files

=================================
=================================







Back to the Top


================
================

Creating Objects

================
================


import Foundation

// to inherit, do  
// class Person: SuperClass 
// where SuperClass is the name
// of the class that you want to inherit
class Person {  

	var firstName = ""  // or  var firstName: String
	var lastName = ""   // or  var lastName : String
	var age = 0         // or  var age: Int
	// etc.
	
	init() {
		firstName = ""
		lastName = ""
		age = 0
	}
	
	
	init(firstName:String, lastName:String, age:Int) {
		self.firstName = firstName
		self.lastName = lastName
		self.age = age
	}


	func getFirstName() -> String {
	
		return firstName
	}


	func getAge() -> Int {
	
		return age
	}

	
	func printMessage() {
		print "Hello"
	}
	
	// a class or static function
	// you call class functions by using the name
	// of the class
	// var color = Person.getFavoriteColor()
	
	class func getFavoriteColor() -> String {
		return "Red"
	}
}



In order to create a Person object you can:

// creates a variable that can refer to a Person object
var person: Person


// creates the Person object 
person = Person()
OR
person = Person("Sue", "Baker", 16)
OR
person = Person(firstName:"Sue", lastName:"Baker", age:16)

var firstName = person.getFirstName()


Example: A Book class
=====================
import Foundation

class Book {
	var title: String = ""
	var author: String = ""
	var description: String = ""

}





Back to the Top


Simple Programs-Reading from the Console

===================
===================




resultGrade = int(input("What grade did you get? "))
print(resultGrade)





Back to the Top


===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================




===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================



===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================



===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================





=================================
=================================

PyGame


=================================
=================================



import pygame, sys
from pygame.locals import *

# Set up pygame.
pygame.init()

# Set up the window.
windowSurface = pygame.display.set_mode((500, 400), 0, 32)
pygame.display.set_caption('Hello world!')

# Set up the colors.
BLACK = (0, 0, 0)
WHITE = (255, 255, 255)
RED = (255, 0, 0)
GREEN = (0, 255, 0)
BLUE = (0, 0, 255)

# Set up fonts.
basicFont = pygame.font.SysFont(None, 48)

# Set up the text.
text = basicFont.render('Hello world!', True, WHITE, BLUE)
textRect = text.get_rect()
textRect.centerx = windowSurface.get_rect().centerx
textRect.centery = windowSurface.get_rect().centery

# Draw the white background onto the surface.
windowSurface.fill(WHITE)

# Draw a green polygon onto the surface.
pygame.draw.polygon(windowSurface, GREEN, ((146, 0), (291, 106), (236, 277), (56, 277), (0, 106)))

# Draw some blue lines onto the surface.
pygame.draw.line(windowSurface, BLUE, (60, 60), (120, 60), 4)
pygame.draw.line(windowSurface, BLUE, (120, 60), (60, 120))
pygame.draw.line(windowSurface, BLUE, (60, 120), (120, 120), 4)

# draw a blue circle onto the surface.
pygame.draw.circle(windowSurface, BLUE, (300, 50), 20, 0)

# Draw a red ellipse onto the surface.
pygame.draw.ellipse(windowSurface, RED, (300, 250, 40, 80), 1)

# Draw the text's background rectangle onto the surface.
pygame.draw.rect(windowSurface, RED, (textRect.left - 20, textRect.top - 20, textRect.width + 40, textRect.height + 40))

# Get a pixel array of the surface.
pixArray = pygame.PixelArray(windowSurface)
pixArray[480][380] = BLACK
del pixArray

# Draw the text onto the surface.
windowSurface.blit(text, textRect)

# Draw the window onto the screen.
pygame.display.update()

# Run the game loop.
while True:
    for event in pygame.event.get():
        if event.type == QUIT:
            pygame.quit()
            sys.exit()



Back to the Top

Here is another sample pygame program:

import pygame, random, sys from pygame.locals import * WINDOWWIDTH = 600 WINDOWHEIGHT = 600 TEXTCOLOR = (0, 0, 0) BACKGROUNDCOLOR = (255, 255, 255) FPS = 60 PLAYERMOVERATE = 5 playerX = WINDOWWIDTH/2 playerY = WINDOWHEIGHT/2 moveLeft = False moveRight = False moveUp = False moveDown = False # quit the program def terminate(): pygame.quit() sys.exit() # wait on welcome screen def waitForPlayerToPressKey(): while True: for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == QUIT: terminate() if event.type == KEYDOWN: if event.key == K_ESCAPE: terminate() return def setMoveToAllFalse(): global moveLeft global moveRight global moveUp global moveDown moveLeft = moveRight = moveUp = moveDown = False return def drawText( text, font, surface, x, y): textobj = font.render( text, 1, TEXTCOLOR) textrect = textobj.get_rect() textrect.topleft = (x, y) surface.blit( textobj, textrect) pygame.init() mainClock = pygame.time.Clock() # windowSurface represents the monitor # you can also add , pygame.FULLSCREEN) # but reset playerX and playerY windowSurface = pygame.display.set_mode(( WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT)) pygame.display.set_caption(' Your Title ') pygame.mouse.set_visible( False) font = pygame.font.SysFont( None, 48) # gameOverSound = pygame.mixer.Sound('gameover.wav') # play background music # pygame.mixer.music.load('background.mid') # load the player's image playerImage = pygame.image.load('android.png') playerRect = playerImage.get_rect() # Show the "Start" screen windowSurface.fill( BACKGROUNDCOLOR) drawText(' My Game ', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3), (WINDOWHEIGHT / 3)) drawText(' Press a key to start. ', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3), (WINDOWHEIGHT / 2)) pygame.display.update() # draw the screen on the monitor waitForPlayerToPressKey() # wait for a key press while True: # Set up the start of the game. score = 0 playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY) setMoveToAllFalse() # play the background music # pygame.mixer.music.play(-1, 0.0) finished = False; while not finished: # The game loop runs while the game part is playing. score += 1 # moveLeft = moveRight = moveUp = moveDown = False # setMoveToAllFalse() for event in pygame.event.get(): if event.type == QUIT: terminate() if event.type == KEYDOWN: if event.key == K_LEFT or event.key == K_a: setMoveToAllFalse() moveLeft = True if event.key == K_RIGHT or event.key == K_d: setMoveToAllFalse() moveRight = True if event.key == K_UP or event.key == K_w: setMoveToAllFalse() moveUp = True if event.key == K_DOWN or event.key == K_s: setMoveToAllFalse() moveDown = True if event.key == K_ESCAPE: finished = True #if event.type == MOUSEMOTION: # playerRect.centerx = event.pos[0] # playerRect.centery = event.pos[1] # Move the player around if moveLeft and playerRect.left > 0: playerX = playerX - 5 playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY) if moveRight and playerRect.right < WINDOWWIDTH: playerX = playerX + 5 playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY) if moveUp and playerRect.top > 0: playerY = playerY - 5 playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY) if moveDown and playerRect.bottom < WINDOWHEIGHT: playerY = playerY + 5 playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY) # Draw the game world on the window. windowSurface.fill( BACKGROUNDCOLOR) # Draw the score. drawText(' Score: %s' % (score), font, windowSurface, 10, 0) # Draw the player's rectangle. windowSurface.blit( playerImage, playerRect) # update the monitor pygame.display.update() mainClock.tick(FPS) if score >= 2000: break # Stop the game and show the "Game Over" screen. # pygame.mixer.music.stop() # gameOverSound.play() drawText(' GAME OVER', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3), (WINDOWHEIGHT / 3)) drawText(' Press a key to play again.', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3) - 80, (WINDOWHEIGHT / 3) + 50) pygame.display.update() waitForPlayerToPressKey() # gameOverSound.stop() Other commands: BLACK = (0, 0, 0) WHITE = (255, 255, 255) RED = (255, 0, 0) GREEN = (0, 255, 0) BLUE = (0, 0, 255) windowSurface.fill( WHITE) pygame.draw.line( windowSurface, BLUE, (60, 60), (120, 60), 4) pygame.draw.circle( windowSurface, BLUE, (300, 50), 20, 0) pygame.draw.ellipse( windowSurface, RED, (300, 250, 40, 80), 1) pygame.draw.rect( windowSurface, RED, (20, 20, 40, 40)) pygame.draw.polygon( windowSurface, GREEN, (( 146, 0), (291, 106), (236, 277), (56, 277), (0, 106))) pixArray = pygame.PixelArray( windowSurface) pixArray[480][380] = BLACK del pixArray # update the monitor pygame.display.update()
Back to the Top

=================================
=================================

Other Labs


=================================
=================================

Quad Form

Area of a Rectangle

Volume of a Sphere

Roman Numerals

Fibonacci

Student Grades
(average, standard deviation, semester grades, ...)

Tic-Tac-Toe

Hangman

Encrypt Data

Magic Squares


Matrix Battle:


Checkers:



Tax Table



Back to the Top




https://www.python.org/downloads/ http://invpy.com/book Do we need to download it? python3 -m pip install pygame python3 -m pygame.examples.aliens Then add to your program at the beginning: import pygame pygame.init() GUI programming is not standard in python https://opensource.com/life/16/5/open-source-python-gui-frameworks http://www.datadependence.com/2016/04/how-to-build-gui-in-python-3/ https://docs.python.org/3/library/othergui.html https://www.python.org/downloads/ http://invpy.com/book python3 -m pip install pygame python3 -m pygame.examples.aliens Then add to your program at the beginning: import pygame pygame.init() GUI programming is not standard in python https://opensource.com/life/16/5/open-source-python-gui-frameworks http://www.datadependence.com/2016/04/how-to-build-gui-in-python-3/ https://docs.python.org/3/library/othergui.html Online IDE's for Python: https://www.onlinegdb.com/edit/SyIjHpHhI https://www.jdoodle.com/python3-programming-online/
Back to the Top
=================================
=================================

Importance of Computers and Intro to Python

=================================
=================================


Importance of Software

Software or computer programs are what makes a computer do stuff. Without software, a computer is nothing but a big paper weight. It takes both hardware and software (computer programs, apps, code, ...). There are millions of lines of computer code (instructions, commands) in a computer, phone, car, automation lines, robots, planes, trains, etc. Software is everywhere!!! Businesses use it to keep track of products, employees, etc. Schools use it to keep track of student information, grades, etc. as well as to keep track of employees, pay, purchasing, etc. Every company uses computers and lots of software to run their operations, including schools, etc. Software is a big mystery to a lot of people! And it has caused a lot of problems in industry, education, etc. I have been told several times that I was fired by assistant principals and company execs because they did not understand software (I luckily never got fired). I read once a few years ago that more companies have gone bankrupt because of poor decisions about software (including a company that I used to work for).

Hardware and Software (Working together)

CPU

????????? This component is responsible for carrying out our instructions (commands).

RAM Memory

????????? This is very fast memory that is used to store the OS instructions, all program data, and every program's code that is open. The OS is loaded when the computer is first started (turned on). We call this booting the computer. When you open an application, it is loaded (copied) from external storage into the RAM memory along with the data. When you terminate a program, the program instructions and data are erased from the RAM memory. When you shut down (turn off) your computer, all of the programs and data in RAM memory are gone. It is like turning off a light.

ROM Memory

????????? This memory is what starts your computer system when you turn it on (boot it). It contains the basic start up commands to allow you to set which drive is the bootable drive, the boot order, the start up commands to load the operating system into RAM memory, and more.

Mother Board

This hardware is used to connect the CPU, RAM memory, drives, ports, etc.

External Storage

Hard Drive (ssd drives, flash drives, etc.) These devices permanently hold your programs and data, and if bootable, holds the OS as well.

Software

Computer programs (apps) including the OS.

Operating System (OS) (Windows, Mac OS, Linux, ...)

This is the program that is in total control of the machine. It displays the desktop or command line, and allows you to copy files, delete files, organize files (like in folders, etc.), etc.

What is a computer program? (application)

A computer program is a sequence of instructions (commands, statements) for a computer to follow.

What is a computer programming language?

A computer language contains high level commands to allow you to communicate with the CPU.

Can you name some computer langages?

C, C++, ?????????

Compilers vs. Interpreted languages

Many languages need to be compiled or translated into machine code before you can run (execute) them. (C, C++, Pascal, Java, Swift, etc.) Interpreted languages are converted to machine code as they run. Interpreted languages are generally slightly slower (less efficient) than compiled code. (Python) Think about how you might talk to a French person if you did not speak any French.

What is an IDE?

An IDE is an ?????????. It contains an editor for typing in our code (instructions, commands), a button or menu item to run our program, and other utilities. IDLE, JDoodle for Python, Eclipse are examples of some IDE's.

What is an algorithm?

An algorithm is a step by step set of ????????? to someone or some thing to carry out a task.

What does it mean to execute or run a program?

It means to carry out the instructions in your program.

What is a variable?

A variable refers to a place in RAM memory where you can store information (numbers, strings of characters, etc.) Think of box that holds data. Variables have names so that us humans can refer to them. Variable names should be descriptive of what kind of information they refer to. Names must start with a letter of the alphabet. After that you can have more letters or numbers or the underscore(_) character. However, you can not have a space character or any other special characters in your name. We should always user lower case letters, except on word boundaries for long names. Variables can not be key words of the programming language. Also, names are case sensitive. So, X and x are actually different names. Some examples of variable names: x y answer b num totalSum answer x y -------- -------- -------- | 12 | | 7 | | 5 | -------- -------- --------

A simple Swift set of instructions (commands):

print("Swift Sample Program") print() var x = 7 // or let x = 7 if you are not going to change x's value var y = 5 // or let y = 5 if you are not going to change y's value let answer = x + y print(answer) NOTE: Swift will give a warning if you use var to define a variable but you never change the value later. Use var to define a variable that you plan to change later, otherwise use let.

Another simple Swift set of instructions (commands):

// readLine is no longer supported // as of Swift 3 for iOS apps. // However, it is supported for console apps. NOTE: All input using readLine or accessing UITextField will give you back an Optional type. You will either need to unwrap it with the ! or convert it with an if let statement. NOTE: readLine is no longer supported as of Swift 3 for playground. However, it is supported for console apps. # The # tells the interpreter to ignore the line print("Swift Sample Program 2") print() print("Enter your first name: ", terminator:"") var myString = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! # unwrapped with !

Another simple Swift set of instructions (commands):

print("Enter the value for x: ", terminator:"") let x = Int(readLine(strippingNewline:true)!)! # unwrapped with ! print("Enter the value for y: ", terminator:"") let y = Int(readLine(strippingNewline:true)!)! # unwrapped with ! let answer = x + y print(x, "+", y, "is", answer)

Some examples of illegal variable names:

total Sum num@ sum!
Back to the Top
=================================
=================================

Programming Assignments

=================================
=================================



Back to the Top
############################################################################ Your Name and Favorites (print) ############################################################################ Program #0A - Write a program that prints out your name and: My favorite color is ???. My favorite song is ???. My favorite tv program is ???. My favorite food is ???. Remember, a computer runs or executes our commands (instructions) in the order that we specify. You will be using the print instruction (command). Example: print("I love music") Sample Output: My favorite color is red. My favorite song is Fun, Fun, Fun. My favorite tv program is Star Trek. My favorite food is turkey. ############################################################################ Your Name and Favorites (print) ############################################################################ Program #0B - Write a program that prints out some math expressions: Remember, a computer runs or executes our commands (instructions) in the order that we specify. You will be using the print instruction (command). Type in the following code or make up some on your own: print("2 + 8 - 5") print(2 + 8 - 5) print() print("2 * 8 - 5") print(2 * 8 - 5) print() print("2 * 8 / 4") print(2 * 8 / 4) print() Sample Output: 2 + 8 - 5 5 2 * 8 - 5 11 2 * 8 / 4 4 ############################################################################ Welcome (Read from the keyboard or stdin, print, String concatenation (+) ############################################################################ Program #1 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter their first name. Print out Welcome first name! (use the + operator to join strings) The command or instruction to let the user enter information is: firstName = input("Enter your first name: ") firstName is a variable name that I made up. Variables can hold data (Strings, numbers, etc.) When you make up a variable name to hold data, you must start with a letter of the alphabet, followed by more letters and/or digits (no spaces or special characters). Here is some starting code that you can type in to get started. print("Welcome") print() print() print("Enter your first name: ", terminator:"") let firstName = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // now print out "Welcome", firstName, "!") Sample Output: Welcome Enter your first name: (user enters a name like maybe Tom) Welcome Tom! ############################################################################ Welcome (Read from the keyboard or stdin, print, String concatenation (+) ############################################################################ Program #2 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter their first name. Then prompt the user to enter their last name. Print out Welcome, first name space last name print("Welcome") print() print() print("Enter your first name: ", terminator:"") let firstName = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // Now ask the user to enter the last name and then // read in the last name. // Next print a blank line // Now print out "Welcome", firstName, "!") Sample Output: Welcome Enter your first name: (user enters first name like maybe Tom) Enter your last name: (user enters last name like maybe Baker) Welcome, Tom Baker! ############################################################################ Area of a Rectangle (Read from the keyboard or stdin (input), print(), math operations) ############################################################################ Program #3 - Write a program that prompts the user for the length and width of a rectangle, calculates the area, and prints out: The area of the rectangle is ??? Here is some starting code. print("Area of a Rectangle") print() print() print("Enter the length of a rectangle: ", terminator:"") let length = Int(readLine(strippingNewline:true)!)! etc. Sample Output: Area of a Rectangle Enter the length of a rectangle: (user enters maybe 8) Enter the width of a rectangle: (user enters maybe 5) The area is 40 square units. ############################################################################ Area of a Circle (Read from the keyboard (input), print(), math operations) ############################################################################ Program #4 - Write a program that prompts the user for the radius of a circle, calculate the area, and then print out: The area of the circle is ???.???? square units. Use Double.pi for pi. Sample Output: Area of a Circle Enter the radius of a circle: (user enters maybe 5) The area of the circle is 78.53975 square units. ############################################################################ Celsius to Fahrenheit (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations) ############################################################################ Program #5 - Write a program that prompts the user for the Fahrenheit temperature, calculate the Celsius temperature and then print out: Use: let celsius = 5 / 9 * (fahrenheit - 32) The Celsius temperature is ???.???? degrees. Sample Output: Fahrenheit to Celsius Enter the Fahrenheit temperature: (user enters maybe 70) The Celsius temperature is ???.???? degrees. (70 degrees Fahrenheit is about 21.1111111111111 degrees in Celsius) ############################################################################ Surface Area of a Cube (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations) ############################################################################ Program #6 - Write a program that prompts the user for the length of a side for a cube, calculate the surface area (6*side*side), and then print out: The surface area of the cube is ???.???? square units. You can use the double type or an integer type for your variables. Sample Output: Surface Area of a Cube Enter the length of one side: (user enters maybe 4) The surface area is ???.???? square units (if one side is 5, the surface area is 150.0 square units) ############################################################################ Batting Average (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations) ############################################################################ Program #7A - Write a program that prompts the user for the number of hits, the number of at bats, and the number of walks. You can call your variables hits, atBats, and walks. Find the batting average and the on base percentage: battingAvg = hits / atBats let onBasePCT = (hits + walks) / (atBats + walks) Sample Output: Batting Average Enter the number of hits: (user enters maybe 2) Enter the number of at bats: (user enters maybe 8) Enter the number of walks: (user enters maybe 2) The user's batting average is .250 The user's on base average is .400 ############################################################################ Throwing Percentage (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations) #### (also called passing percentage) ############################################################################ Throwing Percentage #7B - Write a program that prompts the user for the number of passes completed and the number of passes thrown. You can call your variables passesCompleted and passesAttempted. Find the throwing percentage: let throwingPCT = passesCompleted / passesAttempted Sample Output: Throwing Percentage Enter the number of passes completed: (user enters maybe 4) Enter the number of passes thrown: (user enters maybe 8) The throwing percentage is .500 ############################################################################ Winning Percentage (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations) ############################################################################ Winning Percentage #7C - Write a program that prompts the user for the number of wins and the number of losses. You can call your variables wins and losses. let winningPCT = wins / (wins + losses) Find the winning percentage: Sample Output: Winning Percentage Enter the number of wins: (user enters maybe 3) Enter the number of losses: (user enters maybe 7) The winning percentage is .300 ############################################################################ Slope of a Line (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations, if else) ############################################################################ Program #7D - Write a program that prompts the user for two points (2D). You can call your variables x1,y1 and x2,y2. Find the slope of the line, and then print out: The slope of the line is ???.???? slope = (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1) Sample Output: The Slope of a Line Enter the value for x1: (user enters maybe 1) Enter the value for y1: (user enters maybe 1) Enter the value for x2: (user enters maybe 2) Enter the value for y2: (user enters maybe 2) The slope of the line is ???.???? (The slope for (1,1) and (2,2) is 1.0) ############################################################################ Letter Grades (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, if else if) ############################################################################ Program #8 - Write a program that prompts the user for a numerical grade. Find the letter grade, and then print out: The letter grade is ?. You can use an integer type for your input variable. 95 and above - A 87 - 94 - B 75 - 86 - C 70 - 74 - D 69 and below - F Sample Output: Letter Grades Enter the numerical grade: (user enters maybe 82) The letter grade is a C ############################################################################ Positive or Negative or Zero (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, if else if) ############################################################################ Program #9 - Write a program that prompts the user for a number, and then prints out: The number is positive or negative or zero. You can use an integer type for your input variable. Sample Output: Positive or Negative or Zero? Enter a number: (user enters maybe 7) 7 is a positive number. ############################################################################ Multiplication Table (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, for loops) ############################################################################ Program #10 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out a multiplication table for that number. You can use the integer type for your variable. You should use a for indexed loop for x in 0...9 { ??????? } Multiplication Table Enter a number (0 - 9): (user enters maybe 7) 7 x 2 = 14 ... 7 x 9 = 63 ############################################################################ The Guessing Game(Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, while loops) ############################################################################ Program #11 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. The user will be guessing a number between 1 - 100. Use var number = Int.random(in:1...100) They will get 7 guesses to win, else they lose. You can use the integer type for your variable. Use a for loop. for numTries in 1...7 Sample Run: The Guessing Game low = 1 high = 100 Enter your guess: 50 You number is too low! low = 51 high = 100 Enter your guess: 75 Your number is too high! low = 51 high = 74 Enter your guess: 63 Your number is too high! low = 51 high = 62 Enter your guess: 56 You number is too low! low = 57 high = 62 Enter your guess: 60 Your number is too high! low = 57 high = 59 Enter your guess: 58 You number is too low! low = 59 high = 59 Enter your guess: 59 You guessed the number!!!

An Outline for the Guessing Game

import Foundation // print out the title "The Guessing Game" // print two blank lines // declare a variable called low and set it to 1 // then declare a variable called high and set it to 100 // declare a variable called number to hold the // computer's number that the user will try to guess // use ???????? // declare a variable called userGuess that will hold the // user's guess and set it to 0. // declare a variable called numTries that will hold the // user's number of tries and set it to 1. // now we will loop while numTries <= 7 { print("low =",low," high =", high) // ask the user to enter your guess and store // it in a variable called userGuess // convert the input to an int // check and see if the userGuess == number // and if so break out of the loop // the keyword to break out of the loop is break // elif check and see if the userGuess < number // and if so: // print out "Your number is too low!" // and then set low = userGuess + 1 // else: // print out "Your number is too high!" // and then set high = userGuess - 1 // add 1 to the variable location called numTries print() } // end of while loop print() // check and see if userGuess == number // and if so print out "You guessed the number!!!" // else // print out "You lose. The number was",number ############################################################################ The Dice Game(Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, while loops) ############################################################################ Program #12 - Write a program that simulates tossing dice. The user will toss dice (2). You will be getting two numbers between 1 and 6 (inclusive). die1 = random.randrange(1,7) die2 = random.randrange(1,7) You will add these numbers together. If the sum is 7 or 11, the player wins, else they lose. You can use the integer type for your variable. Sample Run: The Dice Game Do you want to toss the dice (y or n)? y y You tossed a 7 . You win! Do you want to toss the dice (y or n)? y You tossed a 6 . You lose! Do you want to toss the dice (y or n)? y You tossed a 7 . You win! Do you want to toss the dice (y or n)? y You tossed a 12 . You lose! Do you want to toss the dice (y or n)? n Wins: 2 Losses: 2 Thank you for playing dice!!! Outline: // print out the title "The Dice Game" // print 2 blank lines // define variables // wins, losses, die1, die2, and sum, and set them to zero while true { print("Do you want to toss the dice (y or n)? ", terminator:"") let answer = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // check and see if the answer is equal to "n", and if so break // toss the dice die1 = ????? // get a random number from 1 to 6 inclusive die2 = ????? // get a random number from 1 to 6 inclusive print("You tossed a", die1, "and a", die2) print() // find the sum of the two die sum = ?????? // check and see if your sum is a 7 or an 11 (if so you win!) if ???? == ? || ????? == ? { // print a You win! message and then add 1 to your wins variable ???? ???? } else { // print a You lose! message and then add 1 to your losses variable ???? ???? } print() } print() // print out the number of wins and losses (with a message) ???????? // print out a thank you for playing the game // print out a Goodbye message ############################################################################ Factors of a Number ############################################################################ Program #13 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out all of the factors of the number In order to see if a number is a factor use: if number % d == 0 where d is your divisor You will need a loop like the following: for d in 1...number You can use the integer type for your variable. Sample Output: The Factors of a Number Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8) The factors of 8 are: 1 2 4 8 ############################################################################ Print the factors of a number and how many factors (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations % ==, for loops, if else) ############################################################################ Program #14 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out all of the factors of the number and how many factors. You can use the integer type for your variables. You will need a count variable starting at 0. You will need a for loop to loop through all the possible divisors (1 - number): for d in 1...number Sample Output: The Factors of a Number Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8) The factors of 8 are: 1 2 4 8 There are 4 factors. ############################################################################ Print the GCF of two numbers (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations % ==, for loops, if else, &&) ############################################################################ Program #15 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter two numbers. Print out the GCF of the two numbers. You will need to loop through all of your possible divisors. for d in 1...num1 and then see if num1 % d == 0 && num2 % d == 0 and then save in a variable such as gcf You can use the integer type for your variables. Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 Sample Output: The GCF of two Numbers Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 8) Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 12) The GCF of 8 and 12 is 4 Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 12) Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 16) The GCF of 12 and 16 is 4 Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Print the GCF of two numbers (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations % ==, for loops, if else, &&, and functions) ############################################################################ Program #16 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter two numbers. Print out the GCF of the two numbers. Write a function called gcf. Call the function to get your result. Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 0 func gcf(_ num1:Int, _ num2:Int) -> Int { // Put your code here to find the gcf of num1 and num2 } You can use the integer type for your variables. Sample Output: The GCF of two Numbers Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 8) Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 12) The GCF of 8 and 12 is 4 Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 12) Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 16) The GCF of 12 and 16 is 4 Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Print the sum of the digits of a number (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, % ==, for loops, functions ) ############################################################################ Program #17 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out the sum of the digits for the number. Write a function to find the sum. Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 func sum(_ num:Int) -> Int { if num == 0 { return 0 } if num < 0 { num = abs(num) } sum = 0 while num > 0 { rightDigit = num % 10 sum = sum + rightDigit # adds right digit to sum num = num / 10 # divides by 10 and throws away fraction } // now return the sum } // end of func sum // main program is below // print title // print 2 blank lines while true { // input your number // see if the number is 0, and if so, break the loop // print out the result (call sum(num)) } // print out "Goodbye" Sample Output: The Sum of the Digits for a Number Enter a number: (user enters maybe 123) The sum of the digits of 123 is 6. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 325) The sum of the digits of 325 is 10. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Print the vowels of a String (Read from the keyboard, print, slicing, for loops, if else, &&) ############################################################################ Program #18 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String. Print out each vowel in the String (a, e, i, o, u). You can use the String type for your variable. Stay in a loop until the user enters the empty String. Hint: for ch in myString: if ch == "a" || ch == "e": # finish this print (ch, terminator:"") Sample Output: The Vowels in a String Enter a String: (user enters maybe catalog) The vowels of catalog are: aao Enter a String: (user enters maybe computer) The vowels of computer are: oue Enter a String: (user enters maybe nothing) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Print the capital letters of a String (Read from the keyboard, print, slicing, for loops, if else, &&) ############################################################################ Program #19 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String. Print out each capital letter in the String. Stay in a loop until the user enters the empty String. Hint: if ch >= "A" && ch <= "Z" Sample Output: The Capital Letters in a String Enter a String: (user enters maybe CatALog) The capital letters of CatALog are: CAL Enter a String: (user enters maybe ComPuTer) The capital letters of ComPuTer are: CPT Enter a String: (user enters maybe nothing) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Prime Numbers ############################################################################ Program #20 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out whether the number is prime or not. Write a function to find the result (boolean). Hint: A prime number has exactly 2 factors. Count the factors as you find them. Check the count after your loop has finished, and see if you have exactly 2, and return True Otherwise return False. Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 func isPrime(_ num:Int) -> Int { count = 0 // loop and count all of the divisors of num // after the loop // check and see if count is == to 2, and if // so return true // otherwise return false } // main program // print the title // print 2 blank lines while true { // prompt the user to enter a number // print a blank line // check and see if the number is 0, and if so // break out of the loop if isPrime(?????) // this calls the function { // print out the number is prime. } else: { // print out the number is NOT prime. } } print() print("Goodbye!") Sample Output: Prime Numbers Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8) 8 is NOT prime. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 17) 17 is prime. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Perfect Numbers ############################################################################ Program #21 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out whether the number is perfect or not. A perfect number has divisors that add up to the number. For example, 6 is perfect since factors 1, 2, 3 add to 6. Write a function to find the result (boolean true or false). Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 func isPerfect(_ num:Int) { sum = 0 // loop through all of the possible factors, but // do NOT include the number itself // if you find a factor, then add it to the sum // sum = ??? + d // After the loop // check and see if the sum == num, and if // so, return true else return false } // main program goes here Sample Output: Perfect Numbers Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8) 8 is NOT perfect. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 6) 6 is perfect. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! let b2 = String(12, radix: 2) // converts 12 into 1100 base 2 let b8 = String(12, radix: 8) // converts 12 to "14" base 8 let b16 = String(12, radix: 16) // converts 12 to "c" base 16 ############################################################################ Base Two Numbers ############################################################################ Program #22 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out the number in base 2. You can use the integer type for your variable. let b2 = String(number, radix: 2) // converts number to a base 2 (String) Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 Base 2 numbers have only two digits, 0 and 1 Base 10 numbers have 10 digits, 0...9 Example 1: 0 1 0 1 1 0 <- binary digits 32 16 8 4 2 1 <- place value The binary number in base 10 is ?????????????? Example 2: 1 1 0 1 1 1 <- binary digits 32 16 8 4 2 1 <- place value The binary number in base 10 is ?????????????? Example 3: 0 0 1 1 1 1 <- binary digits 32 16 8 4 2 1 <- place value The binary number in base 10 is ?????????????? Sample Output: Binary Numbers Enter a number to convert into binary: 20 The number 20 in binary form is 0b10100 Enter a number to convert into binary: 16 The number 16 in binary form is 0b10000 Enter a number to convert into binary: 18 The number 18 in binary form is 0b10010 Enter a number to convert into binary: ############################################################################ Base Eight Numbers ############################################################################ Program #23 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out the number in base 8. You can use the integer type for your variable. let b8 = String(number, radix: 8) // converts number into base 8 Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 Base 8 numbers have 8 digits, 0...7 Base 10 numbers have 10 digits, 0...9 Example 1: 0 3 5 <- octal digits 64 8 1 <- place value The octal number in base 10 is ?????????????? Example 2: 0 2 0 <- octal digits 64 8 1 <- place value The octal number in base 10 is ?????????????? Example 3: 0 2 7 <- octal digits 64 8 1 <- place value The octal number in base 10 is ?????????????? Sample Output: Base Eight Numbers Enter a number: (user enters maybe 17) 17 in base 8 is 21. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 15) 15 in base 8 is 17. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Base Sixteen (Hex) Numbers ############################################################################ Program #24 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number. Print out the number in base 16. You can use the integer type for your variable. let b16 = String(number, radix: 16) // converts number into base 16 Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 Base 16 numbers have 16 digits, 0...9, A, B, C, D, E, F Base 10 numbers have 10 digits, 0...9 Example 1: 0 2 5 <- hex digits 256 16 1 <- place value The hex number in base 10 is ?????????????? Example 2: 0 1 C <- hex digits 256 16 1 <- place value The hex number in base 10 is ?????????????? Example 3: 0 2 A <- hex digits 256 16 1 <- place value The hex number in base 10 is ?????????????? Sample Output: Base Sixteen (Hex) Numbers Enter a number: (user enters maybe 17) 17 in base 16 is 10. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 45) 45 in base 16 is 2d. Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Simple Encryption ############################################################################ Program #25 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String (a message). Print out the encrypted string based on the following algorithm. Write a function to find the result (String). Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 func encrypt(_ s:String) -> String { // this string will hold the encrypted form var encryptedString = "" var i = 0 // position in the string for ch in s.unicodeScalars { // convert the character into numeric format var x = ch.value // ASCII value // change the value of x by adding four or adding seven // based upon it's position within the String // if the i is an even number, add 4 to x // else add 7 to x if i % 2 == 0 { x = ????? } else { x = ????? } // convert x back into it's character format let result = Character(UnicodeScalar(x)!) // add the result to the end of encryptedString encryptedString = encryptedString + String(result) // add 1 to i i = ???? } return your encryptedString } Sample Output: Encryption Enter a message: (user enters maybe Hello World) Hello World encrypted is Llpss'[vvsh Enter a message: (user enters maybe Python is fun!) Swift is fun! encrypted is ??????? Enter a message: (user enters maybe nothing) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Simple Decrypt ############################################################################ Program #26 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String (a message) in encrypted form using the algorithm above. Print out the decrypted string based on reversing the algorithm above. Write a function to find the result (String). Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 func decrypt(_ encryptedString:String) -> String { // reverse what you did in the above problem // you will get characters one by one from // encryptedString, convert them, and then add // them to s var s = "" // put your code here var i = 0 // position in the string for ch in encryptedString.unicodeScalars { } return s } Sample Output: Encryption Enter a message: (user enters maybe Llpss'[vvsh) Llpss'[vvsh decrypted is Hello World Enter a message: (user enters maybe Nhzh$pw'j|r() Nhzh$pw'j|r( decrypted is Python is fun! Enter a message: (user enters maybe nothing) Goodbye! ############################################################################ Simple Lists (Arrays) ############################################################################ Program #27 - Write a program that finds the largest number in a list (Array). Write a function to do this. Use a loop. func findLargest(_ array:[Int]) -> Int { largest = array[0] # so far // now loop through each number in the list // This is a for each loop, so number will be the // value of each element, NOT an index for number in array { // see if number > largest, and if so, // largest = number } // return the value of largest } func convertStringToNumericList(_ myStringList:String) -> [Int] { let arrayString = myStringList.components(separatedBy: " ") var array = [Int]() for i in 0..<arrayString.count { let s = arrayString[i] array.append(Int(s)!) } return array } // in your main program // print the title "Largest Number" // print 2 blank lines // You can type in 12, 3, 6, 8, 14, 12, 1 print("Enter a list of numbers separated by spaces ", terminator:"") let myStringList = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // array will be an array of Int values let array = convertStringToNumericList(myStringList) var largestOfOne = findLargest(array) // now print it! The largest number in array one is 14. // print a blank line ############################################################################ Simple Lists (Arrays) ############################################################################ Program #28 - Write a program that finds the number of even numbers in the array. Write a function to do this. func countEvens(_ array:[Int]) -> Int { var count = 0 // loop through all of the numbers in array // now loop through all the numbers in the list // This is a for each loop, so number will be the // value of each element, NOT an index for number in array { // each time check and see if number is even, and if so, // add 1 to your count variable (use number % 2 == 0) } // return the count } func convertStringToNumericList(_ myStringList:String) -> [Int] { let arrayString = myStringList.components(separatedBy: " ") var array = [Int]() for i in 0..<arrayString.count { let s = arrayString[i] array.append(Int(s)!) } return array } // in your main method // var one = [12,3,6,8,14,12,1]; // var two = [1,2,8,4,9,6,6,8,2]; print("Enter a list of numbers separated by spaces ", terminator:"") let myStringList = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! let myStringList = textField.text! // array will be an array of Int values let array = convertStringToNumericList(myStringList) var numberOfEvens = countEvens(array) // now print it! The number of even numbers in array one is 4 ############################################################################ Simple Lists (Arrays) ############################################################################ Program #29 - Write a program that finds the average of the numbers in the array. Write a function to do this. func findAverage(_ array:[Int]) -> Double { var count = 0 // use this variable to find the sum of the numbers in the list var sum = 0 // loop through all of the numbers in array // This is a for each loop, so number will be the // value of each element, NOT an index for number in array { // each time add number to your sum to get a new value for sum // sum = ???? + ?????? // add 1 to your count variable } // type cast your sum and count variables to be Double // return the average } func convertStringToNumericList(_ myStringList:String) -> [Int] { let arrayString = myStringList.components(separatedBy: " ") var array = [Int]() for i in 0..<arrayString.count { let s = arrayString[i] array.append(Int(s)!) } return array } // in your main method // var one = [12,3,6,8,14,12,1] // var two = [1,2,8,4,9,6,6,8,2] print("Enter a list of numbers separated by spaces ", terminator:"") let myStringList = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // array will be an array of Int values let array = convertStringToNumericList(myStringList) var average = findAverage(array) // now print it! The average of the numbers in list one is ???.? // print a blank line // now do array two ############################################################################ Simple Arrays ############################################################################ Program #30 - Write a program that finds and prints the first n fibonacci numbers. You will not need to convert to an int array. findFibonacciNumbers will return an Int array for us. Write a function to do this. func findFibonacciNumbers(_ howMany:Int) -> [Int] { var list = [1, 1] // start with the first two numbers and append more for i in 2..howMany { // find the next fibonacci number // var nextNumber = list[i-1] + ???? // list.append (?????) } // return your list } func getFiboList(_ list:[Int]) -> String { // add code to print all the numbers in your list // on the same line. Separate your numbers with a space var output = "" for number in list { output = output + String(num) + " " } // now we just return the output return output } // in your main method // print a title // print 2 blank lines // if you are doing an iphone app, you don't want a loop // Do this in your button event with no loop while true { // Ask the user for how many fibonacci numbers that they want to see // print(?????) // read it in (readLine) or if you are doing a iPhone app // just get it from your input field and convert it to an Int let num = ????? // if they enter 0, break out of the loop // below we call our function to create the list of fibonacci numbers let fiboList = findFibonacciNumbers(num) // we now print the fibonacci numbers all on the same line // by calling a function to do this let fiboListAsAString = FiboList(fiboList) // now print it (or if gui, put it on a label to display it or in // a TextView object (which handles many lines) // print a blank line } print() print("Goodbye") ############################################################################ Simple Arrays ############################################################################ Program #31 - Write a program that finds if an array is strictly increasing. Write a method to do this. Strictly increasing means that the numbers continue to increase. Example 1: [1, 5, 7, 12, 70, 80] is strictly increasing [1, 5, 5, 12, 70, 80] is NOT strictly increasing (5 - 5) [1, 5, 7, 6, 70, 80] is NOT strictly increasing (7 - 6) func isStrictlyIncreasing(_ array:Int) -> Bool { // return true if it is strictly increasing else false // you will need a for indexed based loop // access each ith number and see if it is greater than or equal to // the i+1 element, and if so return False // after the loop is over, return True for i in 0..= array[i+1] then return false } return true } func convertStringToNumericList(_ myStringList:String) -> [Int] { let arrayString = myStringList.components(separatedBy: " ") var array = [Int]() for i in 0..<arrayString.count { let s = arrayString[i] array.append(Int(s)!) } return array } // in your main method // If you are using an online compiler that does not handle input // then just define the array instead of asking the user to enter // numbers. // var array = [1,3,6,8,14,16,18] print("Enter a list of numbers separated by spaces ", terminator:"") let myStringList = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // array will be an array of Int values let array = convertStringToNumericList(myStringList) if isStrictlyIncreasing(array) { # print that the number is strictly increasing } else { # print that the number is NOT strictly increasing } ############################################################################ Simple Arrays ############################################################################ Program #32 - Write a program that trims the noise from a music file. func getMusicAsString(_ samples:array[Int]) -> String { // get a String with each number in the list followed by space // use a for loop (either a for indexed base loop or a for each loop) var output = "" for number in samples { output = output + String(number) } // now return the output } func trimNoise(samples, amplitude) { // if a number in the list > amplitude then change the // value to amplitude list[i] = amplitude // if a number in the list < -amplitude then change the // value to -amplitude list[i] = -amplitude // you will need to loop through each element with a // for indexed loop. } // in your main part // If you are using an online compiler that does not handle input // then just define the array instead of asking the user to enter // numbers. // var array = [40,2532,17,-2300,-17,-4000,2000,1048,-420,33,15,-32,2030,3223] print("Enter a list of numbers separated by spaces ", terminator:"") let myStringList = readLine(strippingNewline:true)! // array will be an array of Int values let array = convertStringToNumericList(myStringList) print("The original list of numbers are:") let output = getMusicAsString(array) print(output) // or put it on a label for an iPhone app // your original list should be: 40 2532 17 -2300 -17 -4000 2000 1048, 420 33 15 -32 2030 3223 print() trimNoise(array, 2000) print("The trimmed list of numbers are:") // now print out the music again let output = getMusicAsString(array) print(output) // or put it on a label for an iPhone app // your trimmed list should be: 40 2000 17 -2000 -17 -2000 2000 1048, 420 33 15 -32 2000 2000 ############################################################################ List ############################################################################ Program #33 - Write a program that reads in the names of people and their age. Print the name and age on the console one per line. Use 2 Lists. The List has the following functions and methods! list.append(object) - adds an object to the end of the list list.insert(index, object) - inserts the object at the given position len(list) - returns how many objects are in our list list.reverse() - reverses the list list.sort() - sorts the list (small to large) list.remove(object) - removes object from list (others slide down) list.pop() - removes and returns the last object in the list max(list) - returns the largest object min(list) - returns the smallest object list[0] - accesses the object in the zero position def printNamesAndAges(names, ages): # you should print out each name and age on the same line # (one person per line) # use a for loop for i in range(0,len(names): # print the name and age # in your main method # create an empty List that can hold names and another for the ages names = [] ages = [] # use a while loop since we do not know how many names while True: # prompt the user to enter a person's name name = ?????("......") # if name is empty break # prompt the user to enter that person's age name = ?????("......") # if they enter nothing, we will assume that they are finished # and break out of the loop if name == "": break # add the name to our list of names names.append(???) # add the age to our list of ages ages.append(???) # print a blank line print() print() # now print out the names and ages printNames(names, ages) print() # now sort the names and print them out again # you should notice a problem!!!!!!!!! ############################################################################ List ############################################################################ Program #34 - Write a program that reads in the names of items and the cost of some items that you buy. You will use the float data type rather than the int data type. So cast your input to a float(input(......)) rather than int(input(......)) Print out each product name and cost on the same line of the console. Then print the total cost of all of the items. Use a List to hold the names and a separate list to hold the costs. def printItemsAndCosts(costs): # print each item's name and the cost for that item. # use a loop def getTotalCost(costs): # find the total cost for all items and return it # use a loop sum = 0 # now a loop to add each cost to the sum # now return the cost def printTotalCost(costs): # print the total cost of all items # print out: Total Cost: $xxxx.xx totalCost = getTotalCost(costs) # now print it # in your main method items = [] # creates an empty list to hold all the names of the items costs = [] # creates an empty list to hold the cost of each items # read in all of the costs # use a while loop since we do not know how many costs while True: # prompt the user to enter the name of the item # if the name is empty, break out of the loop # prompt the user to enter the cost of the item # remember to type cast it to a float # add the name of the item to our list of items items.append(???) # add the cost to our list of costs costs.append(???) # now print out the costs printCosts(costs) printTotalCost(costs) print() print() CLASSES ARE NOW USED!!!!!!!! ############################################################################ List ############################################################################ Program #35 - Write a class that stores information about a student (Student). Store in the class the first name, last name, quarter 1 grade, quarter 2 grade, and the average. # You must include this import statement as your first line # in your code from operator import attrgetter class Student: # we generally put our class variables or static variables here # these variables are shared by all objects # however, we won't need any for this assignment # We then generally define a constructor # to create and initialize our instance variables (members) def __init__(self, firstName, lastName, q1, q2): self.firstName = firstName # creates instance variable self.firstName self.lastName = lastName # creates instance variable self.lastName self.q1 = ? self.q2 = ? self.average = ??? # calculate the semester grade def getFirstNameLastName(self) # return self.firstName + " " + self.lastName return ??? # this is NOT inside the class def printStudents(students): # print out each student's full name, q1, q2, and average # use a for each loop for student in students: # student is referring to one student in the list # you can access info in the student's object by using: # student.firstName, student.lastName, # student.q1, student.q2, student.average # you can also called any functions inside the Student class # student.getFirstNameLast() but don't pass it self # so print this student's full name, q1, q2, and average # this is NOT inside the class def findTheStudentWithTheHighesAverage(students): # Define a variable to refer to the student with # the highest grade. Assign to it students[0] studentWithHighestAverage = ????? # use a for each loop to see if anybody has a higher average # Below is a for each loop. # You could also use a for indexed based loop # for i in range(0,len(students)): for student in students: # student is referring to one student in the list # you can access info in the student's object by using: # student.firstName, student.lastName, # student.q1, student.q2, student.average # See if student has a higher grade than studentWithHighestAverage, # and if so, then studentWithHighestAverage should now refer to # student. if ?????????.average > ???????.average: studentWithHighestAverage = ?????? return ?????????? # this starts the main program students = [] # creates an empty list # use a while loop since we do not know how many persons while True: # prompt the user to enter a person's first name # read it in using input() firstName = input("Enter the person's name: "); # if empty break out of the loop # prompt the user to enter a person's last name # read it in using input("?????????") # prompt the user to enter a student's q1 grade # prompt the user to enter a student's q2 grade # creates a Student object and passes to it the info student = Student(firstName, lastName, q1, q2) # add the Student object to our list students.append(???) # now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade, # and their average printStudents(students) # Now sort the students students = sorted(students, key=attrgetter('lastName','firstName')) # only works with the import statement from operator import attrgetter # now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade, # and their average printStudents(students) ############################################################################ List of Objects ############################################################################ Program #36 - Write a class that stores information about a product to buy. Store in the class the barcode, item name, price, inventory, and the amount of tax to charge. class Item: # We then generally define a constructor or initializer # to create and initialize our instance variables (members). # When an Item is created (and we can create many of these) # we send to this constructor or initializer the information # which is then stored temporarily in the parameter variables. # barcode, itemName, price, inventory, and taxRate are the names of # the parameter variables that receive the incoming data. # self.barcode, self.itemName, self.price, self.inventory, # and self.taxRate are the instance variables which are permanent. # The parameter variables are created, assigned the incoming values, # but then are destroyed at the end of the function. def __init__(self, barcode, itemName, price, inventory, taxRate): self.barcode = barcode # creates instance variable self.barcode self.itemName = itemName # creates instance variable self.itemName self.price = ????? self.inventory = ??????? self.taxRate = ???????? # the tax is the percent (like maybe 0.0825) def getTaxOnItem(self): # return the tax for this sale (taxRate * price) return 0 # change this (do the math) # END OF class # this is NOT inside the class def printItems(items): # print out each item's name, price, and tax to be paid # use a for each loop for item in items: # item is referring to one item in the list called items # you can access info in the item's object by using: # item.barcode, item.itemName, # item.price # you can also call any functions inside the Item class # For example: item.getTaxOnItem() but don't pass it self # so print this item's name, price, and tax to be paid # Also, if an item is low on inventory (less than 5) # print out the message Low Inventory: Only ? items left # print a blank line print() return def searchForItemByBarcode(items, barcode): for item in items: if item.??????? == ???????: return item return "" # we did not find the item with this barcode # this starts the main program # items will be a list that holds all of the items in our store. items = [] # We will now add Item objects to our list of items item = Item("78645", "Bread", 3.99, 55, 0.0825) items.append(item) item = Item("79644", "Campbell's Vegetable Soup 8 oz", 2.49, 3, 0.0825) items.append(item) item = Item("79645", "Amy's Vegetable Soup 8 oz", 2.37, 2, 0.0825) items.append(item) item = Item("79688", "Amy's Vegetable Soup 12 oz", 3.49, 12, 0.0825) items.append(item) # these would be scanned and we would get the barcode 1 by 1 # this program the basics of how this would work itemsToBuy = ["78645", "79645"] # for the customer to buy # search for items and print out the name, cost, and tax for each # item. Also add up the total cost, total tax paid, and the # final bill to be paid. totalCost = 0.00 totalTax = 0.00 for barcode in itemsToBuy: # find the item in the items list by calling the # function searchForItemByBarcode and passing or # sending to it the items and the barcode in that order. item = searchForItemByBarcode(?????, ??????) # use item.price to refer to the price of this item # use item.inventory to refer to the inventory of this item totalCost = ????? + ???????? totalTax = ?????? + item.getTaxOnItem() # now print out the total cost without tax, the amount of tax to pay, # and the final bill finalBill = ???? # do the math # print it here with one value per line # For example: print("Total cost: ", totalCost) # then you would print your total tax, and then your final bill. ????????? ????????? ????????? print() print("Thank you for shopping at The Best Store") print() ############################################################################ List of Objects ############################################################################ Program #37 - Write a class that stores information about your driving record. Store in the class the driver's license, name, and license plate. class DriversRecord: def __init__(self, license, name, licensePlate): # create self.license, self.name, and self.licensePlate # and assign the corresponding parameter values to the # self variables (instance variables or members) self.????? = ????? self.????? = ??????? self.????? = ???????? # END OF class # this starts the main program # drivers will be a list that holds all of the DriversRecord objects. # The list will start out empty. drivers = [] # We will now add DriversRecord objects to our list of drivers driver = DriversRecord("677892456", "Fred Baker", "AB7864") drivers.append(item) # ADD THREE MORE PEOPLE # THE LICENSE MUST BE UNIQUE # Ask the user for the license number of whom you want to find. # The license will be a String, so do not type cast it. licenseToFind = ?????? theDriver = "" # this will hold the reference to the Driver if we find it found = False # Now we will go looking for the license and thus get the driver's info # We will look through all the drivers until we find it or the loop # ends. for driver in drivers: # driver will refer to one DriversRecord if licenseToFind == driver.?????: theDriver = ?????? # this should be the driver found = ???? # boolean value (don't put False) # check your found variable and see if it is == True # print out all the information about the driver # else: # print out an appropriate message (License not found.) print() ############################################################################ List of Objects ############################################################################ Program #38 - You will be modifying program #37. See code above and modify it. Add an instance variable called points that holds an integer. When you get a traffic ticket, depending on what you did wrong, you get points added to your points (this is NOT a good thing since the insurance companies can now charge you more money, and if you get too many points, the DMV can take your license away). You will need to modify your constructor (initializer). You will also need to add more object's to your list to test the printing of the points and a possible loss of your driver's license. When you print the driver's information, add the points to your output and a message. Example: Points: 5 Also, check and see if you have more than 10 points, and if so print out a message like: Example: Your license has been suspended. ############################################################################ List of Objects ############################################################################ Program #39 - You will be creating GameScore objects to hold the scores of several basketball games. // 1 GameScore Object // // We can create the object using the command or instruction: // game = GameScore("Boston Celtics", 116, "LA Lakers", 112) // // If we have a variable called game that // refers to this object in RAM memory, we // can use commands or instructions like: // game.team1 // game.points1 // game.team2 // game.points2 // // This command or instruction would create room in RAM memory that // could hold our information. It will run our init function after // reserving room in the RAM that will put the info in the object // for us. // // The variable named game would actually hold the memory address of where // the object was created in RAM memory, and thus we say that it refers to // (or points to) the object. RAM memory is byte addressable. // We have byte 0, byte 1, byte 2, ... byte 78456, byte 78455, ... // The OS determines where our object will be stored in RAM memory. // The OS keeps a map of all used memory. // So, maybe we would get a location starting at byte 78456, // and thus game would hold that number for us. // game // ============ // | 78456 | // ============ // // game would refer to this object stored at // memory location 78456 // // Location 78456 // ===================================== // | team1 | // | ============================= | // | | "Boston Celtics | | // | ============================= | // | | // | points1 | // | ============================= | // | | 116 | | // | ============================= | // | | // | team2 | // | ============================= | // | | LA Lakers | | // | ============================= | // | | // | points2 | // | ============================= | // | | 112 | | // | ============================= | // | | // | init | // | ============================= | // | | code goes here | | // | | code goes here | | // | | code goes here | | // | | code goes here | | // | | code goes here | | // | ============================= | // | | // ===================================== class GameScore: def __init__(self, team1, points1, team2, points2): self.team1 = team1 self.points1 = points1 self.team2 = team2 self.points2 = points2 # end of init function # END OF CLASS # NOTE: games is plural because we are # referring to possibly many GameScore objects # HOW WOULD I CREATE an array or list that can hold # GameScore objects???????????? games = [] # THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it # (or append it) to our games list (array) game = GameScore("Boston Celtics", 116, "LA Lakers", 112) games.append(game) # THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it # (or append it) to our games list (array) game = GameScore("San Antonio Spurs", 128, "Detroit Pistons", 96) games.append(game) # THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it # (or append it) to our games list (array) game = GameScore("Houston Rockets", 124, "Indiana Pacers", 119) games.append(game) # THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it # (or append it) to our games list (array) game = GameScore("Dallas Mavericks", 117, "New York Knicks", 115) games.append(game) # print the title "Game Scores" # ?????? # PRINT A BLANK LINE # ????? # PRINT A BLANK LINE print("Here are the scores printed from an array:") print("===============================================") # NOW LET'S LOOP THROUGH THE ARRAY # one GameScore object at a time # HOW MANY games are in the games array or list????? for i in range(0, len(games)): # HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's team1 field (variable) ??????? # games[?].team1 print("Team: ", ???????) // HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's points1 field (variable)??????? print("Score: ", ????????) print() # HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's team2 field (variable) ??????? ?????? # HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's points2 field (variable)??????? ?????? // HOW WOULD I PRINT A BLANK LINE TO SEPARATE THE OUTPUT // OF THIS GameScore object FROM THE NEXT GameScore object??????? ??????? print("===============================================") /* Sample run: Game Scores Here are the scores printed from an array: =============================================== Team: Boston Celtics Score: 116 Team: LA Lakers Score: 112 =============================================== Team: San Antonio Spurs Score: 128 Team: Detroit Pistons Score: 96 =============================================== Team: Houston Rockets Score: 124 Team: Indiana Pacers Score: 119 =============================================== Team: Dallas Mavericks Score: 117 Team: New York Knicks Score: 115 =============================================== */ ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #40 - Write a program that prints out a 2D array in matrix format and row major order. Write a method to do the printing. Use print("%3d" % (element)) def printMatrix(matrix): for r in range(0, len(a)): for c in range(0, len(a[r])): print("%3d" % (a[r][c]), end=' ') # stay on row print() # move to next row # in your main program one = [ [1, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ] two = [ [2, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [4, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ] # print matrix one printMatrix(one) # now do array two ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #41 - Write a program that prints out 1 row of a 2D array. Write a method to do the printing. def printRow(array): # Remember that array will be referring to just one row. # So, just print out the one row with each number formatted # to take up three print positions. You will need a loop. # You can use an indexed based loop like # for i in range(0, len(array)): # num = array[i] # and now print the number formatted # OR a for each loop like # for num in array: # and now print the number formatted # in your main method # In the list below: # one[0] is referring to [1, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18] # one[1] is referring to [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] # one[2] is referring to [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] # in the list below, len(one) is 3 (since there are 3 lists or 3 rows) # in the list below, len(one[0]) is 7 (since there are 7 elements in the 0 list) one = [ [1, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ] two = [ [2, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [4, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ] # print the first element in one's first line print(one[0][0]) # print the second element in one's first line print(one[0][1]) # print the third element in one's first line print(one[0][2]) # print row 0 printRow(one[0]) # now print row 1 # now print row 2 # use a loop to print all rows by calling printRow for each row for r in range(len(one)): ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #42 - Write a program that finds the sum of a row. Print all elements of the row followed by the sum. Make sure that your output is lined up properly. Write a method to do the printing. def findSum(array): # array will be a list (1d array) # find the sum and return it # You will need a loop (either for indexed or for each loop) def printRow(array): # array will be a list (1d array) def printSum(array): # array will be a list (1d array) # call the findSum function # use 4 print positions (formatted) # in your main program one = [1, 3, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18] two = [2, 3, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18] # call printRow and then printSum for each 1d array ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #43 - Write a program that finds the sum of each row. Print all elements of the row followed by the sum. Make sure that your output is lined up properly. Write a method to do the printing. After doing this, write a method to print out the sum of each column. def printRow(array): define printRowSum(array): def printAllRowsAndSum(array): for r in range(0, len(array)): printRow(array[r]); # prints out row r printRowSum(array[r]); # prints the sum of row r // call this method after printing out all rows and their sums def printColumnSum(array, column): def printSumOfAllColumns(array): // in your main method one = [ [1, 3, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ] two = [ [2, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7],[4, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6]] // Do not use any loops here // Just make method calls ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #44 - Write a program that finds if X or O is a winner. Make sure that your output is lined up properly. Write a method to print out the game board, and then print out who won. def printBoard(board): # print out the board in matrix format def isWinnerHorizontally(player, board): # player should be either "X" or "O" # board should be a 2D array # return True if you find a winner # else return False # We will check row 0 first. # There is an easier way with loops. Can you think of how # See if player is equal to board[0][0] and # player is equal to board[0][1] and # player is equal to board[0][1] and if player == board[0][0] and player == board[0][1] and player == board[0][2]: return True # Now check row 1 # Now check row 2 # if none of the above are True, simply return False return False def isWinnerVertically(player, board): def isWinnerOnDiagonal1(player, board): def isWinnerOnDiagonal2(player, board): def isWinner(player, board): # We will call each of the win methods above # See if player is a winner horizontally if isWinnerHorizontally(player, board): return True # See if player is a winner horizontally if isWinnerVertically(player, board): return True # See if player is a winner on the first diagonal # See if player is a winner on the second diagonal # if it gets here, return False since player is NOT a winner # in your main method board1 = [ ['X', 'O', 'X'], ['X', 'X', 'O'], ['O', 'O', 'X'] ] ] board2 = [ ['X', 'O', 'X'], ['X', 'X', 'O'], ['O', 'O', 'X'] ] board3 = [ ['X', 'O', 'X'], ['X', 'X', 'O'], ['O', 'O', 'X'] ] printBoard(board1) print() if isWinner("X", board1): print("X is the winner on board1") elif isWinner("O", board1): print("O is the winner on board1") else: print("There is no winner on board1. Cat's game!!!") # print 2 blank lines # DO THIS FOR board2 # DO THIS FOR board3 ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #45 - Write a program that plays tic tac toe but lets the users enter the positions of where they want to play. You will need the functions that you wrote above. Copy and paste them into this program. Make sure that your output is lined up properly. # MAIN PROGRAM print("Tic-Tac-Toe") print() print() while True: # outer loop of game to play another game # we will create an empty board for this game board = [ ['-', '-', '-'], ['-', '-', '-'], ['-', '-', '-'] ] # print the board while True: # inner loop that plays 1 game # player X will choose the row and column to play on. print("Player X's turn") row = int(input("Enter your row to play on (1,2,3): ")) col = int(input("Enter your col to play on (1,2,3): ")) row = row - 1 col = col - 1 board[row][col] = "X" # print the board # check and see if "X" is a winner # if so print out that X is a winner and break the loop print() # player O will choose the row and column to play on. print("Player O's turn") row = int(input("Enter your row to play on (1,2,3): ")) col = int(input("Enter your col to play on (1,2,3): ")) row = row - 1 col = col - 1 board[row][col] = "O" # print the board # check and see if "O" is a winner # if so print out that O is a winner and break the loop print() print() print() print() playAgain = input("Would you like to play another game? (y or n)") if playAgain == "n": break # breaks out of outer loop print() print() print("Thank you for playing Tic-Tac-Toe. I hope that you had fun!") ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #46 - There are problems with the game above. Fix the problems. 1) A player could play on another players move or his own. Check the spot to see if it is available. Wrap up the input process in a loop. 2) A player could enter a row or column that is out of range. Check and see if they are within the range. Wrap up the input process in a loop. 3) Add a function to see if the row and col are in range, and the spot is an empty spot. return True or False 4) Call the function above in your main program to make it more readable. ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #47 - You will be writing a program called Battle Ship. You will move your ship through dangerous waters and avoid hitting the destroyers. # Battle Ship # Put functions here # ================== def printBoard(board): # code to print the board goes here for row in range(0,len(board)): for col in range(0, len(board[row])): print(???????????, end='') print() return def copyBoard(board): newBoard = [] for row in range(0,len(board)): newRow = [] for col in range(0, len(board[row])): newRow.append(board[row][col]) newBoard.append(newRow) return newBoard def moveDestroyersDown(board): # You will need to start at the last row and move all # Distroyers off the board (set them to ' '). Then # continue by moving all Destroyers down by one # When you move a destroyer down, erase it from it's # current position, and then assign it to the row # below. # this clears the bottom row as these destroyers # leave the area, or you could wrap them around. lastRow = len(board) - 1 for col in range(0,len(board[0])): board[lastRow][col] = ' ' shipIsHit = False # Now move all the destroyers down 1 row # but first check to see if the ship is # in that spot. If so, set shipIsHit to True. # So, loop through all the rows for the outside loop # Then loop through all the columns on the row (indexed loop) # Inside the inner loop check to see if you have a destroyer, # and if so see if it would hit your ship, and if so # set shipIsHit to true. Then move the destroyer down. # DO NOT CHANGE THE row variable, just use: # board[row+1][col] = 'D' ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? return shipIsHit # Main program goes here # ================== # here is the board row0 = ['D', ' ', 'D', ' ', 'D' , 'D', 'D', ' '] row1 = ['D', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , 'D', ' ', ' '] row2 = ['D', ' ', 'D', ' ', ' ' , 'D', ' ', ' '] row3 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , 'D', ' ', 'D'] row4 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' '] row5 = [' ', 'D', ' ', 'D', 'D' , ' ', ' ', ' '] row6 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' '] row7 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' '] row8 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' '] row9 = [' ', ' ', ' ', '*', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' '] board = [] board.append(row0) board.append(row1) board.append(row2) board.append(row3) board.append(row4) board.append(row5) board.append(row6) board.append(row7) board.append(row8) board.append(row9) originalBoard = copyBoard(board) shipRow = 9 shipCol = 3 print("Battle Ship") print() print() while True: # outer loop of game to play another game # we will create a board for this game (optional) # just reset it back to the beginning # (call a function to do this) board = copyBoard(originalBoard) # reset the ship's coordinates shipRow and shipCol shipRow = 9 shipCol = 3 # print the board printBoard(board) while True: # inner loop that plays 1 game # Ask the user how to move (left, up, right, or none) print("You can move left (l), up (u), right (r), none (n), or quit (q)") move = input("Enter how to move (l, u, r, n, q): ") # handle the move if possible # if this move attempts to go out of bounds, ignore it and # stay put. if move == 'l': board[shipRow][shipCol] = ' ' shipCol = shipCol - 1 if board[shipRow][shipCol] == 'D': print("You lose!!!") break board[shipRow][shipCol] = '*' elif move == 'u': board[shipRow][shipCol] = ' ' shipRow = shipRow - 1 if board[shipRow][shipCol] == 'D': print("You lose!!!") break board[shipRow][shipCol] = '*' elif move == 'r': board[shipRow][shipCol] = ' ' shipCol = shipCol + 1 if board[shipRow][shipCol] == 'D': print("You lose!!!") break board[shipRow][shipCol] = '*' elif move == 'q': break # Now move the destroyers down # Call your method shipIsHit = moveDestroyersDown(board) # Now see if your ship got hit if shipIsHit == True: print("You lose!!!") break # print the new board # call a function printBoard(board) # check for a win (reaching row 0) and # if so, print out a win message and then break the loop if shipRow == 0: print("You win!!! Great job!!!") break print() print() print() print() playAgain = input("Would you like to play another game? (y or n)") if playAgain == "n": break # breaks out of outer loop print() print() print("Thank you for playing Battle Ship. I hope that you had fun!") ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #48 - You will be writing a program called Pascal's Triangle. You will need to generate Pascal's Triangle and then print it out. Store the numbers in a 2 dimensional array. The first column is always a 1. You will need to generate elements starting at row 1. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 5 10 10 5 1 0 0 0 etc. def printMatrix(matrix): # print the matrix in formatted form print() def fillMatrixWithAllZeroes(matrix): # we will now create all the rows and fill them with 0's for row in range(0,9): # creates an empty array array = [] for col in range(0,9): array.append(0) # appends the array as a new row for the matrix matrix.append(array) def fillMatrix(matrix): # fill the matrix for row in range(1,9): for col in range(1,9): # change the row,col element to be # the sum of the element directly above # plus the element to the left of the element above # matrix[row][col] = ?????? # MAIN PROGRAM print("Pascal's Triangle") print() print() # this creates an empty matrix matrix = [] # we will now fill it with 0's # call a function ??????? # fill the first column with 1's. # use a single loop # look at the pattern below and # notice what is changing (the row) matrix[0][0] = 1 matrix[1][0] = 1 matrix[2][0] = 1 matrix[3][0] = 1 # etc. # now we can put the correct numbers into the array # for the other elements # call your method # now print the matrix # call your method from above print() print() print("Thank you for printing Pascal's Triangle. I hope that you had fun!") ############################################################################ Arrays 2D ############################################################################ Program #49 - You will be writing a program that has an encrypt and decrypt function. You will be using a 2D array (or matrix) to hold the translations. We will only use capital letters. encryptMatrix A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z . (space) decryptMatrix Y Z . (space) U V W X Q R S T M N O P I J K L E F G H A B C D def encrypt(s): # write the code to encrypt s (s is a String) # Example 1: "ABCD" would become "YZ. " # Example 2: "CAR" would become ".YJ" return ??? def decrypt(s): # write the code to encrypt s (s is a String) # Example 1: "YZ. " would become "ABCD" # Example 2: ".YJ" would become "CAR" return ??? # MAIN PROGRAM print("Encrypt - Decrypt") print() print() while True: # Ask the user to enter a string with all capitals s = ??????? # if s is empty, then break # Encrypt the String e = ?????? # print e with a message print("The encrypted string is " + e) # decrypt e s = decrypt(e) # print s with a message print("The decrypted string is " + s) print() print() print("Thank you encrypting and decrypting. I hope that you had fun!") ############################################################################ Arrays 1D ############################################################################ Program #50 - You will be writing a program that is an English to Spanish dictionary. # write a class to hold the english word and the spanish word(s). # include an init constructor which receives the english word and # the corresponding spanish word(s). Your program should find the # word whether it is in upper or lower case or a combination. # You can convert to other languages as well. class Word: # put your init function here # MAIN PROGRAM # this creates an empty words = [] word = Word("House", "Casa") words.append(word) word = Word("Cat", "Gato, Gata") words.append(word) # add 4 more words # you can use google to look up more words print("English to Spanish Dictionary") print() print() found = False while True: # ask the user to enter the english word that they want to find # in order to get the corresponding spanish word englishWord = ????("Enter the English word: ") if englishWord == "": break found = False word = "" # loop through the words and see if you find # it, and if you do, set word to refer to # the word object that you found, and set # found to True if found == True: # print out the spanish word else: # print your word was not found print() print() print("Goodbye!") ############################################################################ Arrays 1D ############################################################################ Program #51 - You will be writing a program that plays BlackJack. # MAKE SURE THAT YOU LEAVE THE COMMENTS IN PLACE # THIS WILL HELP YOU FIND YOUR ERRORS import random # This class holds information about one card # Create the class header # The class name should be Card (with a capital C) class ????: # write the constructor header def ????????(self, suit, kind, value): self.suit = ???? self.kind = ???? self.value = ????? def getKindOfCard(self): return self.????? def getCardValue(self): return self.????? # END OF class # This function creates all the cards for one suit def createCards(cards, suit): for c in range(1,14): if c < 10: card = Card(suit, str(c), c) elif c == 10: card = Card(suit, "Jack", 10) elif c == 11: card = Card(suit, "Queen", 10) elif c == 12: card = Card(suit, "King", 10) elif c == 13: card = Card(suit, "Ace", 11) # We should now add this card to our cards array cards.??????(card) # end of for loop # END OF function # THIS function can print any list of cards # It can print the playersHand, the dealersHand, or all the cards in the deck # You simply pass the appropriate list of cards to this function when you call it def printCards(cards): for card in ?????: # for each loop (for each card in the cards array) print("%-10s %-10s" % (card.suit, card.kind)) print() # This will get 1 card from the cards list (The deck of cards) def getACard(cards): # we will get a random card from the list of cards x = random.randrange(0, len(cards)) # finds the position of a random card card = cards[x] # card will now refer to this card object del cards[x] # we will now remove it from the cards list return card # END OF getACard # This will get the sum of all the cards in some hand of cards def getHandValue(cards): # We need to find the sum of all the card values sum = ? for card in cards: sum = ??? + card.getCardValue() return ??? # MAIN PROGRAM # We create an empty cards list cards = ?? # This will create all the cards for suit in ['Hearts', 'Diamonds', 'Spades', 'Clubs']: createCards(cards, suit) # print(len(cards)) # uncomment the line below if you want to see all of your cards # printCards(cards) print ('Blackjack') print() print() # The playersHand will be empty to start. playersHand = ?? # The dealersHand will be empty to start. dealersHand = ?? # You have not won yet nor have you lost yet. wins = ? losses = ? # Let's start playing the game of BlackJack while True: # Set both the player's hand and the dealer's hand to hold nothing playersHand = ?? dealersHand = ?? # get 2 cards for the player card = getACard(cards) playersHand.append(card) card = getACard(cards) playersHand.append(card) # get 2 cards for the dealer and add them to the dealersHand card = ??????(?????) dealersHand.?????(??????) card = ??????(?????) dealersHand.??????(?????) while True: print("Your cards are :") # call the function printCards() and pass to it playersHand ???????(???????) # Ask the user if they want another card pickACard = ?????("Do you want another card (y or n)? ") # See if pickACard is equal to "y" if ???????? ?? ???: # get another card from the cards array card = getACard(?????) # Now add this card to the playersHand playersHand.append(card) if getHandValue(dealersHand) < 16: # get another card from the cards array card = ???????(??????) # Now add this card to the dealersHand dealersHand.??????(????) # get the hand value of the playersHand if ??????????(???????) > 21: print() break # See if pickACard is equal to "n" ????????? print() break print() # END OF WHILE loop print() while getHandValue(dealersHand) < 16: # get a card from the deck of cards card = getACard(?????) dealersHand.append(card) # Get the value of the player's hand playersHandValue = ???????(???????) # Get the value of the dealer's hand dealersHandValue = ????????(????????) # print out who wins for each of the following cases # and print out the hand value for the player and the dealer # Also add 1 to the wins if you win # Add 1 to the losses if you lose if playersHandValue <= 21 and playersHandValue > dealersHandValue: ???? print out who won print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue) print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue) wins = ?????? elif playersHandValue <= 21 and dealersHandValue > 21: ???? print out who won print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue) print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue) wins = ?????? elif playersHandValue <= 21 and playersHandValue == dealersHandValue: ???? print out who won print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue) print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue) losses = ?????? elif playersHandValue > 21 and dealersHandValue > 21: ???? print out who won print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue) print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue) elif dealersHandValue <= 21: ???? print out who won print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue) print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue) losses = ???????? else: print("Dealer wins!") print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue) print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue) losses = ???????? print() print("Wins:", ????, " Losses:", ?????) print() print() # Ask the user if they want to play another game answer = ?????("Do you want to play another game (y or n)? ") print() # See if the answer is 'n' and if so break the loop ??????? print() print("Thanks for playing Blackjack!!!") print() print("Goodbye!") ############################################################################ Arrays 1D ############################################################################ Program #52 - You will be writing a program that creates some picture. A sample python program with turtle graphics # allows us to access the turtle modules or code import turtle # creates the Turtle object t = turtle.Turtle() t.color("red") t.shape("turtle") t.pensize(5) # the code will execute with n having values # that keep changing each time through the loop # n will be 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 n = 10 while n <= 40: # the blocked code gets executed for each # value of n print("We will draw a circle with the radius of",n) t.circle(n) n = n+10 print() print(n) # A simple turtle graphics program import turtle t = turtle.Turtle() t.shape("turtle") t.pensize(5) u = input("Would you like me to draw a shape? Type yes or no: ") if u == "yes": t.circle(50) elif u == "no": print("Okay") else: print("Invalid Reply") for c in ['red', 'green', 'yellow', 'blue']: # the blocked code gets executed for each # value of c t.pendown() t.color("green", c) t.forward(75) t.left(90) t.forward(50) t.penup() t.forward(50) t.home() t.pendown() t.color('red','blue') t.circle(60) t.dot(30) n=10 while n <= 40: # the blocked code gets executed for each # value of n t.circle(n) n = n+10 # Here is some code where you can write your # own code to draw an oval or you can use # the circle() function with two parameters # Example: turtle.circle(200,90) from math import sin,cos,pi def ellipse(pen, x, y, width, height): pen.penup() pen.goto(x + width / 2, height) pen.pendown() penX, penY = pen.pos() for i in range(0, 360): penX += cos(i*pi/180)*width/180 penY += sin(i*pi/180)*height/180 pen.goto(penX, penY) pen.penup()
=================================
=================================

End of Programming Assignments

=================================
=================================

Back to the Top


program01 outline
program02 outline
program03 outline
program04 outline

Some of NASA Inventions
// THIS CODE IS FOR THE RESTAURANT APP // Control + Drag from your Map object to your // SecondViewController.swift file // PUT THE CODE BELOW IN YOUR SecondViewController.swift file // after your map variable // this variable holds the radius for the map // 1000 meters let regionRadius: CLLocationDistance = 1000 func centerMapOnLocation(location: CLLocation) { let coordinateRegion = MKCoordinateRegionMakeWithDistance(location.coordinate, regionRadius, regionRadius) mapView.setRegion(coordinateRegion, animated: true) } override func viewDidLoad() { super.viewDidLoad() // Do any additional setup after loading the view, typically from a nib. // set initial location in Austin // https://www.mashupsoft.com/ // http://www.mapcoordinates.net/en // 30.2757059,-97.8137898 let initialLocation = CLLocation(latitude: 30.2757059, longitude: -97.8137898) centerMapOnLocation(location: initialLocation) }