===================
===================

# Python 3 Help

===================
===================
``````

Online Python Interpreters

https://www.onlinegdb.com/
Python onlinegdb IDE (We will use this one)

Python IDE JDoodle (backup)

Turtle Graphics IDE
python.org

PythonHelp Website for our camp

w3schools tutorials

Tutorials Point tutorials

Turtle Graphics Tutorials

Importance of Programming and a Brief Introduction
Importance of Programming

Python Programming Assignments for this Workshop
Programming Assignments (more to come)

Go to Last Programming Assignment

``````

Variables
Operators
Hello World
Printing on the Console
Math Stuff
import
type casts
Constants
string
if else statements
Ranges
Loops
Math Functions
Date and Time Functions
Escape Sequences
Creating Functions
Functions with Arguments
Built in Functions
Lists (Arrays)
Tuples (Immutable Lists)
Dictionaries
Lists 2D(Arrays 2D)
Classes
Files
Some Simple Programs
PyGame
More Labs

Back to the Top

===================
===================

## Operators

===================
===================
``````

Arithmetic Operators ( +, -, /, //, *, **)
# / produces a float, where as // produces a whole number (floors it)

x = 5 + 7    // x will receive 12
y = 3 * 12   // y will receive 36
z = x + y    // z will receive 48

Relational Operators (==, !=, >, <, >=, <=)

Sample 1:
x = 8
y = 12
if x > y:
print(x, "is bigger than",y)

Sample 2:
x = 8
y = 12
if x > y:
print(x, "is bigger than",y)
else:
print(y, "is bigger than",x)

Sample 3:
x = 8
y = 12
if x > y:
print(x, "is bigger than",y)
elif y > x:
print(y, "is bigger than",x)
else:
print(y, "is the equal to",x)

Sample 4:
temp = 75
if temp >= 90:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is so hot!")
print("I really hate this weather unless I am at the pool!")
elif temp >= 80:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a little warm!")
elif temp >= 65:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a great day!")
print("I really love this weather!")
elif temp >= 40:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a little cool out there!")
print("I am not very fond of cool weather!")
else:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is very cold out there!")
print("I really hate this weather!")

Logical Operators (and, or, not )

Sample 1:
x = 8
y = 12
z = 10
if x > y and x > z:
print(x, "is bigger than", y, "and bigger than", z, ".")
elif y > x and y > z:
print(y, "is bigger than", x, "and bigger than", z, ".")
elif z > x and z > y:
print(z, "is bigger than", x, "and bigger than", y, ".")
elif x == y and x == z:
print(x, y, z, "are all equal")
elif x == y:
print(x, y, "are equal")
elif x == z:
print(x, z, "are equal")
elif y == z:
print(y, z, "are equal")
else:
print("It should not ever get here.")

Bitwise Operators (&, |, ^, ~, <<, >>)

Assignment Operators (=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, <<=, >>=, &=, ^=, |=)

Back to the Top

``````
===================

## Math Stuff

===================
===================

``````
print("Let's do some Math")
print()

print("3 + 4 - 5")
print(3 + 4 - 5)
print()

print("It knows about my dear aunt Sally")
print("7 - 5 *2")
print(7 - 5 *2)
print()

print("1/2 * 5")
print(1/2 * 5)
print()

print("2**3 + 2")
print(2**3 + 2)
print()

Back to the Top

``````
===================

## Math Functions

===================
===================

``````

math.pow(2,3)   - returns 2 * 2 * 2 = 8.0
math.sqrt(16)   - returns 4.0
math.pi         - returns 3.141592653589793
math.fabs(-20)  - returns 20.0

random.randrange(1, 100) - returns a random number from 1 to 100

(you can always use a type cast if you want an integer)

Samples:
import math

print(math.pow(2, 3))

print(math.sqrt(16))

print(math.pi)

print(fabs(-20))

Back to the Top

``````
===================

## Date and Time

===================
===================

``````

Sample 1:
from datetime import date

today = date.today()
print("Today's date:", today)

Sample 2:
from datetime import datetime

now = datetime.now()

current_time = now.strftime("%H:%M:%S")
print("Current Time =", current_time)

Sample 3:
import time

print("Printed immediately.")
time.sleep(2.4)
print("Printed after 2.4 seconds.")

Sample 4:
import time

named_tuple = time.localtime() # get struct_time
time_string = time.strftime("%m/%d/%Y, %H:%M:%S", named_tuple)

print(time_string)

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``````
===================
===================

===================
===================

``````
# This is a comment

span multiple lines
if you use 3 single quotes to start
and 3 single quotes to end
'''

""" Python comments can  also use
double quotes to start and end a String
or a comment.
A String that
spans multiple lines.
"""

Back to the Top

``````
========================
========================

## import

========================
========================

``````

Python built in functions:
abs, divmod, cmp, coerce, float, hex, int, max, min, oct,
pow, round

The math module provides more functions

from math import *

acos, asin, atan, atan2, ceil, cos, cosh, e, exp, fabs, floor, fmod,
frexp, hypot, ldexp, log, log10, mod, pi, pow, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan,
tanh

NumPy has a lot more at www.scipy.org

Support for Complex Numbers are built in.
Use j for the square root of -1

(3+2j)

Complex Number functions
------------------------
import cmath

acos, acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cos, cosh, e, exp, log, log10,
pi, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh.

import cmath

cmath.sqrt(-1)
1j

Other functions
---------------
ord(ch)			# ordinal value of 1 character string
hex(integer)    # returns as a string the hex number
oct(integer)	# returns as a string the octal number
bin(integer)	# returns as a string the binary number

# play sounds (print("\a") does not work in 3)
----------------------------------------------
import winsound         # for sound
import time             # for sleep

winsound.Beep(440, 250) # frequency, duration
time.sleep(0.25)        # in seconds (0.25 is 250ms)

winsound.Beep(600, 250)
time.sleep(0.25)

Back to the Top

``````

===================
===================

## type casts

===================
===================

``````

x = 12
x = float(x) # x is now 12.0

x = 12.5
x = int(x)  # x is now 12

x = str(12) # x is now "12"

x = int(input("Enter a first number: "))
y = int(input("Enter a second number: "))

Back to the Top

``````

===================
===================

## Constants

===================
===================

``````
from named_constants import Constants

>>> class Colors(Constants):
...     black = 0
...     red = 1
...     white = 15
...
>>> c = Colors.black
>>> c == 0
True
>>> c
Colors.black
>>> c.name()
'black'
>>> Colors(0) is c
True

#const.py
class Constants:
@classmethod
get_vara(cls):
return 1

#app.py
from const import Constants
print(Constants.get_vara())

#output
1

Back to the Top

``````

===================
===================

## Ranges

===================
===================

``````

num = int(input("Tell me a number: "))
for i in range(num):
print("Hello")

range(5) is equivalent to range(0, 5)
range(2,6)—     2,3,4,5
range(6,2)—     no values
range(2,8,2)—   2,4,6
range(2,9,2)—   2,4,6,8
range(6,2,-1)—  6,5,4,3

for i in range(6):
print(i, end=" ") # prints 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

for i in range(2, 6):
print(i, end=" ") # prints 2, 3, 4, 5

for i in range(2, 7, 2):
print(i, end=" ") # prints 2, 4, 6

for ch in "Programming is fun!":
print("the next character is", ch)

s = "Programming is fun!"
len_s = len(s)
for i in range(len_s):
print("the next character is", s[i])

Back to the Top

``````

===================
===================

## Hello World

===================
===================

``````
print("Hello World")

Back to the Top

``````

===================
===================

## Variables

===================
===================

``````

A variable refers to a place in RAM memory
where you can store information (numbers,
strings of characters, etc.)  Think of box
that holds data.

Variables have names so that us humans can
refer to them.  Variable names should be
descriptive of what kind of information they
refer to.

After that you can have more letters or numbers or
the underscore(_) character.  However, you can not
have a space character or any other special characters
in your name.  We should always user lower case letters,
except on word boundaries for long names.  Variables
can not be key words of the programming language.
Also, names are case sensitive.  So, X and x are actually
different names.

Some examples of variable names:
x
y
b
num
totalSum

--------   --------   --------
|  12  |  |   7   |   |  5   |
--------   --------   --------

# A simple Python set of instructions (commands):
print("Python Sample Program")
print()
x = 7
y = 5

# Another simple Python set of instructions (commands):
# The # tells the interpreter to ignore the line
print("Python Sample Program 2")
print()
x = int(input("Enter the value for x: "))
y = int(input("Enter the value for y: "))

Some examples of illegal variable names:
total Sum
num@
sum!

Types:
------
int
float
list
tuple
dictionary
range

x = 5   # int 5 is assigned to the storage box called x

y = 5.2 # float 5.2 is assigned to the storage box called y

s = "Hello World"      # string "Hello World" is assigned to s
str = 'Hello World'    # string "Hello World" is assigned to str

counter = 100          # An integer assignment
miles   = 1000.0       # A floating point
name    = "John"       # A string

print (counter)
print (miles)
print (name)

Back to the Top

``````

=======================
=======================

## Escape Sequences

=======================
=======================

Escape sequence Meaning
=======================
``````

\\		\ character
\'		' character
\"		" character
\n		Newline
\t		Horizontal tab

Back to the Top

``````

=======================
=======================

## Printing on the Console

=======================
=======================

``````
print ("Hello World")
print(3 * 2 + 7*3)

a = 1
b = 2
c = a/b
print(a, "/", b, "=", c)
s = str(a) + "/" + str(b) + "=" + str(c)
print(s)

resultAsString = input("What grade on the test do you want ")
print("Congrats on your " + resultAsString)
NOTE: You can not mix types when using the + operator as a join

resultAsInt = int(input("What grade on the test do you want "))
print("Congrats on your " + resultAsInt)
NOTE: You can not mix types when using the + operator as a join
So, the second statement would give you an exception (crash)
resultAsInt = int(input("What grade on the test do you want "))
print("Congrats on your " + str(resultAsInt))

result = input("What city do you live in? ")
print("You live in " + result)

song = input("What is your favorite song: ")
print(song)

band = input("What is your favorite band: ")
print(band)

name = input("What is your name? ")
age = int(input("What is your age? "))
ageOlder = age+25
print("Hi", name, "! In 25 years you will be", ageOlder, "!")

Back to the Top

``````

====================
====================

## Loops

====================
====================

``````

num = int(input("Tell me a number: "))
for i in range(num):
print("Hello")

range(5) is equivalent to range(0, 5)
range(2,6)—2,3,4,5
range(6,2)—no values
range(2,8,2)—2,4,6
range(2,9,2)—2,4,6,8
range(6,2,-1)—6,5,4,3

for i in range(6):
print(i, end=" ") # prints 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

for i in range(2, 6):
print(i, end=" ") # prints 2, 3, 4, 5

for i in range(2, 7, 2):
print(i, end=" ") # prints 2, 4, 6

# a common error is to say for d in range(x+1):
# remember that the default start value is 0
x = 15
for d in range(1,x+1):
if x % d == 0:
print(d, "is a factor of", x)

for ch in "Programming is fun!":
print("the next character is", ch)

s = "Programming is fun!"
length = len(s)
for i in range(length):
print("The next character is", s[i])

secret = "code"
guess = input("Guess a word: ")
tries = 1
while guess != secret:
print("You tried to guess", tries, "times")
guess = input("Guess again: ")
tries += 1
print("You got it!")

Back to the Top

``````

====================
====================

## Creating Functions or Methods

====================
====================

``````

Example 1:
----------

def printEndOfLine( ):
print (end="")
return

# call statement
print("Hello World")
printEndOfLine( )

Example 2:
----------

def printStars( ):
print ("***********************")
return

# call statement
printStars( )

Example 3:
----------

def printTitle():
print()
print()
return

return (g1 + g2)/2

return int(grade1) # converts it into an int

# main program
# execution starts here when you run your program
printTitle()

print()

Example 4:
----------

def printBlankLines(numLines):
for line in range(numLines):
print()
return

def printTitle(title):
print(title)
printBlankLines(2)
return

def printStars(numStars):
for star in range(numStars):
print("*", end="")
return

def printRowsOfStars(numRows, numStars):
for row in range(numRows):
printStars(numStars)
print()
return

def printDashes(numDashes):
for dash in range(numDashes):
print("-", end="")
return

def printRowsOfDashes(numRows, numDashes):
for row in range(numRows):
printDashes(numDashes)
print()
return

# main program
printTitle("Stars and Dashes")
printRowsOfStars(3,20)
printRowsOfDashes(5,20)
printRowsOfStars(5,20)
printRowsOfDashes(3,20)

Example 5:
----------

def sqr(x):
return x * x

# write a cube function

# write a sum function

def min(x,y):
if x < y:
return x
return y

def max(x,y):
if x > y:
return x
return y

print("Functions")
print()
print()
print("The square of 5 is",sqr(5))
# print("The cube of 5 is",cube(5))
# print("The sum of 5 and 8 is",sum(5,8))
print("The smallest of 5 and 8 is",min(5,8))
print("The largest of 5 and 8 is",max(5,8))

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Functions with Arguments

=================================
=================================

``````

Example 1:
----------

def printStr( str ):
print (str)
return

# call statement
print("Hello World")

Example 2:
----------

def sqr( number ):
x = number * number
return x

# call statement
print( sqr(3))  # prints 9

Example 3:
----------

def modifyList( list, index, value ):
list[index] = value
return

# call statement
myList = [1, 1, 2, 3, 5]
modifyList(myList, 5, 8)

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Built in Functions

=================================
=================================

``````

Built in functions:
-------------------
abs, divmod, cmp, coerce, float, hex, int, max, min, oct,
pow, round

The math module
---------------
from math import *

acos, asin, atan, atan2, ceil, cos, cosh, e, exp, fabs, floor, fmod,
frexp, hypot, ldexp, log, log10, mod, pi, pow, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan,
tanh

NumPy has a lot more at www.scipy.org

Support for Complex Numbers are built in.
-----------------------------------------

Use j for the square root of -1

(3+2j)

import cmath

acos, acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cos, cosh, e, exp, log, log10,
pi, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh.

import cmath
cmath.sqrt(-1)
1j

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Lists (Arrays)

=================================
=================================

``````
NOTE: Strings are really just Lists of characters,
so all of these commands work with Strings
as well.

Example 1:

fiboList = [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13]

#slicing:
---------
print(fiboList)   # prints 1
print(fiboList)   # prints 1
print(fiboList)   # prints 2
print(fiboList)   # prints 8
print(fiboList)   # prints 13
print(fiboList[0:7]) # prints [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13]
print(fiboList[2:7]) # prints [2, 3, 5, 8, 13]
print(fiboList[2:4]) # prints [2, 3]

#modifying:
-----------
fiboList = 0
fiboList = 21

Methods for a List:
-------------------
fiboList.count(1)      # returns 2
fiboList.index(1)      # returns 0
fiboList.index(2)      # returns 2
fiboList.remove(2)     # 2 is gone
fiboList.insert(2, 2)  # 2 is back
fiboList.reverse()     # it is reversed
fiboList.reverse()     # original order is back
fiboList.sort()        # sorts small to large
fiboList.append( 89 )  # adds new element to end of list
fiboList.pop( )        # removes and returns last element in list
fiboList.insert(0, 1)  # inserts a new element at position 0

functions:
----------
len(fiboList)     # returns 7
max(fiboList)     # returns 13
min(fiboList)     # returns 1

del fiboList
fiboList + [21, 34, 55]  # concatenation

Example 2:

vowelList = ["a", "e", "i", "o", "u"]

if "a" in vowelList:
print ("a is a vowel")

# the for loop below prints a e i o u
for x in vowelList:
print(x, end=" ");

# prints [a, e]
print (vowelList[0:2])

Example 3:

courseList = ["Computer Science", "Algebra"]

# the for loop below prints
# Computer Science Algebra

for x in courseList:
print(x, end=" ");

# prints Computer Science
print (courseList)

Example 4:

print("Arrays or Lists")
print()
print()

# you could enter the numbers from the keyboard
# list = []
# for i in range(0,5):
#     num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
#     list.append(num)

# OR assign them as a list manually
list = [90, 95, 97, 92, 91]

print(list, end=" ") # end = " " means do not move down to the next line after printing a space
print(list, end=" ")
print(list, end=" ")
print(list, end=" ")
print(list, end=" ")

list = 95
list = 100

print()
print("The numbers in list are now: ")
for i in range(0,len(list)):
print(list[i],end=" ")
print()

# Let's play a game of find the biggest number in some list
# I will show you one number at a time
# Here's the first number:
# 85

# Let's find the biggest number
big = list

for i in range(0,len(list)):
if list[i] > big:
big = list[i]

print("The biggest number is ", big)

Example 5:

from operator import attrgetter

class Student:

# we generally put our class variables or static variables here
# these variables are shared by all objects
# however, we won't need any for this assignment

# We then generally define a constructor
# to create and initialize our instance variables (members)
def __init__(self, firstName, lastName, q1, q2):

self.firstName = firstName  # creates instance variable self.firstName
self.lastName = lastName # creates instance variable self.lastName

self.q1 = q1

self.q2 = q2

self.average = (q1 + q2) / 2 # calculate the semester grade

def getFirstNameLastName(self):
# return self.firstName + " " + self.lastName
return self.firstName + " " + self.lastName

# this is NOT inside the class
def sortByName(student):
return student.firstName

# this is NOT inside the class
def printStudents(students):
# print out each student's full name, q1, q2, and average
# use a for each loop

for student in students:
# student is referring to one student in the list
# you can access info in the student's object by using:
# student.firstName, student.lastName,
# student.q1, student.q2, student.average
# you can also called any functions inside the Student class
# student.getFirstNameLast()  but don't pass it self

# so print this student's full name, q1, q2, and average
print(student.getFirstNameLastName(), student.q1, student.q2)

# this starts the main program
students = []  # creates an empty list

# creates a Student object and passes to it the info
student = Student("Sue", "Jones", 98, 100)

# add the Student object to our list
students.append(student)

# creates a Student object and passes to it the info
student = Student("Bob", "Smith", 94, 95)

# add the Student object to our list
students.append(student)

# creates a Student object and passes to it the info
student = Student("Alex", "Manning", 94, 95)

# add the Student object to our list
students.append(student)

# now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade,
# and their average
print("Original List:")
printStudents(students)
print()

# let's sort them by first name
students = sorted(students, key=sortByName)
# now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade,
# and their average
print("Sorted by firstName field:")
printStudents(students)
print()

students = sorted(students, key=attrgetter('lastName','firstName'))
# only works with the import statement from operator import attrgetter

# now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade,
# and their average
print("Sorted by lastName then firstName field:")
printStudents(students)

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Tuples (Immutable Lists)

=================================
=================================

``````

Tuples are basically immutable Lists.
The parenthesis are optional.  You could
represent a point with a tuple.

Example 1:
----------
fiboList = (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13)

print(fiboList)  # prints 1
print(fiboList)  # prints 1
print(fiboList)  # prints 2
print(fiboList)  # prints 8
print(fiboList)  # prints 13
print(fiboList[0:7]) # prints [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13]

Methods for a Tuple:
-------------------
fiboList.count(1)      # returns 2 for # of 1's
fiboList.index(1)      # returns 0 index of 1st 1
fiboList.index(2)      # returns 2 index of 2 is 2

functions:
----------
len(fiboList)     # returns 7
max(fiboList)     # returns 13
min(fiboList)     # returns 1

del fiboList  # error
fiboList + [21, 34, 55]  # concatenation

Example 2:
----------

vowelList = "a", "e", "i", "o", "u"

if "a" in vowelList:
print ("a is a vowel")

# the for loop below prints a e i o u
for x in vowelList:
print(x, end=" ");

# prints (a, e)
print (vowelList[0:2])

Example 3:
----------

courseList = ("Computer Science", "Algebra")

# the for loop below prints
# Computer Science Algebra

for x in courseList:
print(x, end=" ");

# this prints Computer Science
print (courseList)

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Dictionary

=================================
=================================

``````

A dictionary has key-value pairs.
The keys cannot be changed, but the
values can be changed.
If you reference an item and the key
does not exist, you will get an error.

Methods:
clear()    # clears all elements from the dictionary
get(key)   # retrieves the element with the given key
keys()     # gives back a list of all the keys
items()    # gives back a list of all the values
pop(key)   # removes and gives back the value for the given key

Functions:
len(dictionary)  # gives back the number of elements in the list

Commands:
del dictionary[key]

Example 1:
----------
dictionary = {'House':'Casa', 'Hi':'Hola', 'You':'Tu'}

len(dictionary)  # returns 3

print(dictionary['House'])  # prints Casa
print(dictionary['Hi'])     # prints Hola
print(dictionary['You'])    # prints Tu

dictionary['You2'] = 'You222' # adds a new key value pair
print(dictionary['You2'])    # prints You222
print(dictionary.get('You2'))    # prints You222

# del dictionary['House']  # removes entry with key 'House'
dictionary.pop('House') # removes entry with key 'House' (it must exist)

# dictionary.clear() # clears the dictionary

dictionary.keys()  # returns a list of all of the keys

dictionary.values()  # returns a list of all of the values

for key in dictionary.keys():
print(key, dictionary[word])

for word in dictionary.values():
print(word)

Example 2:
----------
Morse Code

morseCode = {"A" : ".-", "B" : "-...", "C" : "-.-.", "D" : "-.."}

print(morseCode["A"])  // prints .-

print(morseCode["B"])  // prints -...

Example 3:
----------

Roman Numbers

romanNumbers = {"I":1, "II":2, "III":3, "IV":4, "V":5}

print(romanNumbers["I"])  // prints 1

print(romanNumbers["IV"])  // prints 4

Example 3:
----------

Roman Numbers

romanNumbers = {}

romanNumbers["I"] = 1
romanNumbers["II"] = 2
romanNumbers["III"] = 3
romanNumbers["IV"] = 4
romanNumbers["V"] = 5

print(romanNumbers["I"])  // prints 1

print(romanNumbers["IV"])  // prints 4

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Lists 2D (Arrays 2D)

=================================
=================================

``````

Example 1:
----------

print("Two Dimensional Arrays")
print()
print()

a = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
print(a)  # prints row 0 elements [1, 2, 3]
print(a)  # prints row 1 elements [4, 5, 6]
print(a)  # prints row 2 elements [7, 8, 9]

print(a)  # prints row 0 col 0 element
print(a)  # prints row 0 col 1 element
print(a)  # prints row 0 col 2 element

for r in range(len(a)):
for c in range(len(a[r])):
print(a[r][c], end=' ') # stay on row
print() # move to next row

print()
print()

# Another way (for each loop)
for row in a:
for element in row:
print(element, end=' ') # stay on row
print() # move to next row

print()
print()

Example 2:
----------

n = 3
m = 4
a = []
for i in range(n):
a.append( * m)

# the first line of input is the number of rows of the array
n = int(input())
a = []
for i in range(n):
row = input().split()
for i in range(len(row)):
row[i] = int(row[i])
a.append(row)

Example 3:
----------

# defines a 2 dimensional array with 3 rows (each row is a 1 dimensional array)
matrix = [ [1,2,3 ], [4,5,6], [7,8,9] ]
print("Printing the entire matrix.")
print(matrix)
print()

# prints out the first row elements
# the hard way
print("Printing the first row the hard way.")
print(matrix, end=" ")
print(matrix, end=" ")
print(matrix, end=" ")
print()
print()

# prints out each row 1 at a time
# the hard way
print("Printing all rows the hard way.")
print("The 0 row is an array: ",matrix)
print("The 1 row is an array: ",matrix)
print("The 2 row is an array: ",matrix)
print()

# prints out each row in a loop
print("Printing out each row using an indexed loop.")
for row in range(0, len(matrix)):
print("The", row, "row is an array: ",matrix)
print()

# for each loop
print("Printing out each row using a for each loop.")
row = 0
for array in matrix:
print("The", row, "row is an array: ", array)
row = row + 1
print()

# OR print("%3d " % matrix, end=" ")
# The %3d is a placeholder for a number
# The 3 means to use 3 print positions for the number
# So, if the number is 9, it prints space space 9
# if the number is 27, it prints space 27
# if the number is 100, it prints 100

# How could I print out the 2nd row?

# Is there a better way to print out a row?
print("Printing out row 0 formatted with a loop.")
for col in range(0,3):
print("%3d " % matrix[col],  end = "")
print()
print()

# Let's make it a function

def printRow(array):
for col in range(0,len(array)):
print("%3d " % array[col],  end = "")
print()

print("Printing out row 0 by calling a function.")
printRow(matrix)
print()

# Let's print the entire matrix in matrix format
print("Printing out each row formatted using a for indexed loop.")
for row in range(0, len(matrix)):
printRow(matrix)
print()

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Classes

=================================
=================================

``````

// Declaration of a class
// A class is a template that we can use
// at runtime to build a box in RAM memory that can
// hold information about 1 Student (or 1 Person, or 1 grocery item, ...)
//
// THIS BOX (or boxes) that we build at runtime to hold our information is
// called an object.
//
// ANOTHER WAY TO THINK OF A CLASS object is to think of it as a
// container (a box, a sack, a house, a mailbox, ...)

// THINK about building a house (or anything).
// We need a blue print!
// We can store information (with variables)
// and we can store functions to allow us to
// access the data and/or modify the data, or
// do stuff with our data.

// 1 Student Object
//
// We can create the object using the command or instruction:
// student = Student("Tom", "Baker", "tb78654", 90)
//
// If we have a variable called student that
// refers to this object in RAM memory, we
// use commands or instructions like:
// student.firstName
// student.lastName
//
// This command or instruction would create room in RAM memory that
// could hold our information.  It will run our init function after
// reserving room in the RAM that will put the info in the object
// for us.
//
// The variable named student would actually hold the memory address of where
// the object was created in RAM memory, and thus we say that it refers to
// (or points to) the object.  RAM memory is byte addressable.
// We have byte 0, byte 1, byte 2, ... byte 78456, byte 78455, ...
// The OS determines where our object will be stored in RAM memory.
// The OS keeps a map of all used memory.
// So, maybe we would get a location starting at byte 78456,
// and thus student would hold that number for us.

// student
// ============
// |  78456   |
// ============

//
// student would refer to this object stored at
// memory location 78456

//
// Location 78456
// =====================================
// |   firstName                       |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | "Tom"                     |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   lastName                        |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | "Baker"                   |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   id                          |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | tb78654                   |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 90                        |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   __init__                        |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   More functions ...              |
// |                                   |
// =====================================

Example 1:
----------

# A class is sometimes referred to as record.
# A class is a container.  It holds information
# and can have functions.

# So, think of a big box with smaller boxes inside
# to hold the data, and other boxes to hold the
# computer instructions.

# A variable really just refers to a box that holds
# information. (integers, floats, strings, and even
# objects.

# A function really just refers to a box that holds
# computer instructions.

# A class is like a template that tells the computer
# how to create an object with this information inside
# of it.

class Student:

# constructor to initialize instance variables
# The parameter variables that receive the incoming data
# are called firstName, lastName, id, and grade.  These
# are temporary variables.  They receive the data from the
# call statement, you then assign those values to the
# corresponding instance variables.  The parameter variables
# are then destroyed at the end of function.
def __init__(self, firstName, lastName, id, grade):
# Instance variables are created and assigned a value.
# Instance variables are also known as attributes.
# properties, fields, and are permanently storing
# the data for us.

# creates self.firstName instance variable and assigns it the value
# of the parameter variable firstName
self.firstName = firstName

self.lastName = lastName
self.id = id

def getFirstName(self):
return self.firstName

def getLastName(self):
return self.lastName

def getName(self):
return self.firstName + " " + self.lastName

# END OF Student class

# This creates a Student object which will contain the data
# that we send to it.  The variable student1 will hold the
# memory address of where in RAM memory the object was placed.
student1 = Student("Tom", "Baker", "76788", 95)

# This creates another Student object but with different data.
student2 = Student("Sue", "Smart", "66549", 100)

print("Student 1 is " + student1.getName())
print("The first name is " + student1.firstName); # OR call a method
print("The last name is " + student1.lastName);   # OR call a method
print()

print("Student 2 is " + student2.getName())
print("The first name is " + student2.firstName);
print("The last name is " + student2.lastName);
print()

# create an empty array
studentList = []

# append a Student object to the list
studentList.append(student1)

# append a Student object to the list
studentList.append(student2)

# now print out the students
# using a for each loop
print()
for student in studentList:
print("%-15s  %4d" % (student.getName(), student.getGrade()), sep="")
print()

# now print out the students using the
# studentList reference and indexing
print()
for i in range(len(studentList)):
print("%-15s  %4d" % (studentList[i].getName(), studentList[i].getGrade()), sep="")
print()

Example 2:
----------

// 1 Student Object
//
// We can create the object using the command or instruction:
// point = Point(2, 5)
//
// If we have a variable called point that
// refers to this object in RAM memory, we
// use commands or instructions like:
// point.x
// point.y

// point
// ============
// |  78456   |
// ============

//
// point would refer to this object stored at
// memory location 78456

//
// Location 78456
// =====================================
// |   x                               |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 2                         |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   y                               |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 5                         |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |                                   |
// |   __init__                        |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   More functions ...              |
// |                                   |
// =====================================

class Point:

def __init__(self, x, y):
# creates self.x instance variable and assigns it the value
# of the parameter variable x
self.x = x

# creates self.y instance variable and assigns it the value
# of the parameter variable y
self.y = y

def getX(self):
return self.x

def getY(self):
return self.y

def getPoint(self):
return "(" + str(self.x) + ", " + str(self.y) + ")"

class Line:
def __init__(self, p1, p2):
self.p1 = p1
self.p2 = p2

def getSlope(self):
if self.p1.getX() == self.p2.getX():
return "Undefined"
return  (self.p1.getY() - self.p2.getY()) / (self.p1.getX() - self.p2.getX())

point1 = Point(3, 5) # creates the object and puts 3 and 5 inside it
print(point1.x)  # prints 3  OR point1.getX()
print(point1.y)  # prints 5  OR point1.getY()

point2 = Point(6, 7)
print(point2.x)  # prints 6  OR point2.getX()
print(point2.y)  # prints 7  OR point2.getY()

print(point1.getPoint())  # prints (3, 5)
print(point2.getPoint())  # prints (6, 7)

line1 = Line(point1, point2)
print(line1.getSlope())   # prints  0.66666666666

What other classes might be helpful to us?????

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

=================================
=================================

``````

firstName = input(" First Name: ")
lastName  = input(" Last Name: ")
age = int(input("Age: "))

x = int(input("Enter a first number: "))
y = int(input("Enter a second number: "))

var1, var2 = input("enter two numbers (separate with a space):").split()
print(var1)
print(var2)

var = input("enter two numbers (separate with a space or a comma):")
var = var.strip()            # strip off leading and trailing white space
var = var.replace(",", " ")  # replace any comma with a space
var = var.replace("   "," ") # replace 3 spaces with a single space
var = var.replace("  "," ")  # replace 2 spaces with a single space
var1, var2 = var.split()     # now split at the space

does NOT exist in Python 3

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## if else statements

=================================
=================================

``````

Sample 1:
x = 8
y = 12
if x > y:
print(x, "is bigger than",y)

Sample 2:
x = 8
y = 12
if x > y:
print(x, "is bigger than",y)
else:
print(y, "is bigger than",x)

Sample 3:
x = 8
y = 12
if x > y:
print(x, "is bigger than",y)
elif y > x:
print(y, "is bigger than",x)
else:
print(y, "is the equal to",x)

Sample 4:
temp = 75
if temp >= 90:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is so hot!")
print("I really hate this weather unless I am at the pool!")
elif temp >= 80:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a little warm!")
elif temp >= 65:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a great day!")
print("I really love this weather!")
elif temp >= 40:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is a little cool out there!")
print("I am not very fond of cool weather!")
else:
print("It is", temp, "degrees outside.  It is very cold out there!")
print("I really hate this weather!")

Other Sample Programs:

x = int(input("Enter a first number: "))
y = int(input("Enter a second number: "))
if x > 0:
if x < 0:
if x == 0:

if x < 0 and y < 0:
print("both negative")

if type(x) != int or type(y) != int:
print("You did not enter integers")
elif x > 0 and y > 0:
print("both numbers are positive")
elif x < 0 and y < 0:
print("both numbers are negative")
else:
print("numbers have opposite sign")

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## string

=================================
=================================

``````

"Hello World"  # this is a string using ""

'Hello World'  # this is a string using ''

Functions:
----------

s = "Hello World"

len(s)                # returns 11

String methods:
---------------

s = "Hello World"

x = s.find("lo")      # returns 3

x = s.find("Lo")      # returns -1

b = s.isdigit()       # returns true  or false

b = s.isnumeric()     # returns true or false

s = s.lower()         # returns all lower case

s = s.upper()         # returns all upper case

s = s.strip()         # strips white space

s2 = s[2:5]           # returns "llo"

s2 = s[6:]            # returns "World"

str = "12 17 5"       # the default is to separate with spaces
print (str.split( ))  # prints ['12', '17', '5']

str = "12,17,5"       # here we separate with commas
print (str.split(',',1)) # prints ['12', '17', '5']

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Reading from and Writing to files

=================================
=================================

``````

Example 1:
----------

# Open a file
fo = open("foo.txt", "w")
fo.write( "Python is a great language.\nYeah its great!!\n")

# Close opend file
fo.close()

Example 2:
----------

# Open a file
fo = open("foo.txt", "r")

print ("Read String is : ", str)

# Close opened file
fo.close()

Example 3:
----------

# Open a file
fo = open("foo.txt", "r")
for line in fo:
print(line, end='\n')
# Close opened file
fo.close()

Back to the Top

``````

================
================

## Creating Objects

================
================

``````

Example 1:
----------

class Employee:
# 'Common base class for all employees'
# This is sometimes called a class variable because it
# belongs to the entire group of objects of this class type.
# It is also known as a static variable.
empCount = 0

def __init__(self, name, salary):
self.name = name
self.salary = salary
Employee.empCount += 1

def displayCount(self):
# The %d sign is used as a placeholder
# It will be replaced by the value of Employee.empCount
# The d indicates the type of data (an integer)
print ("Total Employee %d" % Employee.empCount)

def displayEmployee(self):
print ("Name : ", self.name,  ", Salary: ", self.salary)

#This would create first object of Employee class
emp1 = Employee("Zara", 2000)

#This would create second object of Employee class
emp2 = Employee("Manni", 5000)

emp1.displayEmployee()
emp2.displayEmployee()

print ("Total Employees %d" % Employee.empCount)

Example 2:
----------

class JustCounter:
__secretCount = 0  # class variable (only 1 variable shared)

def count(self):
self.__secretCount += 1
print (self.__secretCount)

counter = JustCounter()
counter.count()
counter.count()
print (counter.__secretCount)

Example 3:
----------

class Parent:        # define parent class

parentAttr = 100

def __init__(self):
print ("Calling parent constructor")

def parentMethod(self):
print ('Calling parent method')

def setAttr(self, attr):
Parent.parentAttr = attr

def getAttr(self):
print ("Parent attribute :", Parent.parentAttr)

class Child(Parent): # define child class
def __init__(self):
print ("Calling child constructor")

def childMethod(self):
print ('Calling child method')

c = Child()          # instance of child
c.childMethod()      # child calls its method
c.parentMethod()     # calls parent's method
c.setAttr(200)       # again call parent's method
c.getAttr()          # again call parent's method

Example 4:
----------

class Parent:        # define parent class
def myMethod(self):
print ('Calling parent method')

class Child(Parent): # define child class
def myMethod(self):
print ('Calling child method')

c = Child()          # instance of child
c.myMethod()         # child calls overridden method

Back to the Top

``````

## Simple Programs-Reading from the Console

===================
===================

``````

Back to the Top

``````

===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================

===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================

===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================

===================
===================
A Simple Program
===================
===================

=================================
=================================

## PyGame

=================================
=================================

``````

import pygame, sys
from pygame.locals import *

# Set up pygame.
pygame.init()

# Set up the window.
windowSurface = pygame.display.set_mode((500, 400), 0, 32)
pygame.display.set_caption('Hello world!')

# Set up the colors.
BLACK = (0, 0, 0)
WHITE = (255, 255, 255)
RED = (255, 0, 0)
GREEN = (0, 255, 0)
BLUE = (0, 0, 255)

# Set up fonts.
basicFont = pygame.font.SysFont(None, 48)

# Set up the text.
text = basicFont.render('Hello world!', True, WHITE, BLUE)
textRect = text.get_rect()
textRect.centerx = windowSurface.get_rect().centerx
textRect.centery = windowSurface.get_rect().centery

# Draw the white background onto the surface.
windowSurface.fill(WHITE)

# Draw a green polygon onto the surface.
pygame.draw.polygon(windowSurface, GREEN, ((146, 0), (291, 106), (236, 277), (56, 277), (0, 106)))

# Draw some blue lines onto the surface.
pygame.draw.line(windowSurface, BLUE, (60, 60), (120, 60), 4)
pygame.draw.line(windowSurface, BLUE, (120, 60), (60, 120))
pygame.draw.line(windowSurface, BLUE, (60, 120), (120, 120), 4)

# draw a blue circle onto the surface.
pygame.draw.circle(windowSurface, BLUE, (300, 50), 20, 0)

# Draw a red ellipse onto the surface.
pygame.draw.ellipse(windowSurface, RED, (300, 250, 40, 80), 1)

# Draw the text's background rectangle onto the surface.
pygame.draw.rect(windowSurface, RED, (textRect.left - 20, textRect.top - 20, textRect.width + 40, textRect.height + 40))

# Get a pixel array of the surface.
pixArray = pygame.PixelArray(windowSurface)
pixArray = BLACK
del pixArray

# Draw the text onto the surface.
windowSurface.blit(text, textRect)

# Draw the window onto the screen.
pygame.display.update()

# Run the game loop.
while True:
for event in pygame.event.get():
if event.type == QUIT:
pygame.quit()
sys.exit()

Back to the Top

Here is another sample pygame program:

import pygame, random, sys

from pygame.locals import *

WINDOWWIDTH = 600
WINDOWHEIGHT = 600
TEXTCOLOR = (0, 0, 0)
BACKGROUNDCOLOR = (255, 255, 255)
FPS = 60
PLAYERMOVERATE = 5

playerX = WINDOWWIDTH/2
playerY = WINDOWHEIGHT/2

moveLeft = False
moveRight = False
moveUp = False
moveDown = False

# quit the program
def terminate():
pygame.quit()
sys.exit()

# wait on welcome screen
def waitForPlayerToPressKey():
while True:
for event in pygame.event.get():
if event.type == QUIT:
terminate()
if event.type == KEYDOWN:
if event.key == K_ESCAPE:
terminate()
return

def setMoveToAllFalse():
global moveLeft
global moveRight
global moveUp
global moveDown

moveLeft = moveRight = moveUp = moveDown = False
return

def drawText( text, font, surface, x, y):
textobj = font.render( text, 1, TEXTCOLOR)
textrect = textobj.get_rect()
textrect.topleft = (x, y)
surface.blit( textobj, textrect)

pygame.init()

mainClock = pygame.time.Clock()

# windowSurface represents the monitor
# you can also add , pygame.FULLSCREEN)
# but reset playerX and playerY

windowSurface = pygame.display.set_mode(( WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT))

pygame.mouse.set_visible( False)

font = pygame.font.SysFont( None, 48)

# gameOverSound = pygame.mixer.Sound('gameover.wav')

# play background music

playerRect = playerImage.get_rect()

# Show the "Start" screen

windowSurface.fill( BACKGROUNDCOLOR)

drawText(' My Game ', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3), (WINDOWHEIGHT / 3))

drawText(' Press a key to start. ', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3), (WINDOWHEIGHT / 2))

pygame.display.update() # draw the screen on the monitor

waitForPlayerToPressKey()  # wait for a key press

while True:

# Set up the start of the game.
score = 0
playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY)
setMoveToAllFalse()

# play the background music
# pygame.mixer.music.play(-1, 0.0)

finished = False;
while not finished:
# The game loop runs while the game part is playing.
score += 1

# moveLeft = moveRight = moveUp = moveDown = False
# setMoveToAllFalse()

for event in pygame.event.get():

if event.type == QUIT:
terminate()

if event.type == KEYDOWN:
if event.key == K_LEFT or event.key == K_a:
setMoveToAllFalse()
moveLeft = True
if event.key == K_RIGHT or event.key == K_d:
setMoveToAllFalse()
moveRight = True
if event.key == K_UP or event.key == K_w:
setMoveToAllFalse()
moveUp = True
if event.key == K_DOWN or event.key == K_s:
setMoveToAllFalse()
moveDown = True
if event.key == K_ESCAPE:
finished = True

#if event.type == MOUSEMOTION:
#    playerRect.centerx = event.pos
#    playerRect.centery = event.pos

# Move the player around
if moveLeft and playerRect.left > 0:
playerX = playerX - 5
playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY)

if moveRight and playerRect.right < WINDOWWIDTH:
playerX = playerX + 5
playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY)
if moveUp and playerRect.top > 0:
playerY = playerY - 5
playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY)
if moveDown and playerRect.bottom < WINDOWHEIGHT:
playerY = playerY + 5
playerRect.topleft = (playerX, playerY)

# Draw the game world on the window.
windowSurface.fill( BACKGROUNDCOLOR)

# Draw the score.
drawText(' Score: %s' % (score), font, windowSurface, 10, 0)

# Draw the player's rectangle.
windowSurface.blit( playerImage, playerRect)

# update the monitor
pygame.display.update()

mainClock.tick(FPS)

if score >= 2000:
break

# Stop the game and show the "Game Over" screen.

# pygame.mixer.music.stop()
# gameOverSound.play()

drawText(' GAME OVER', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3), (WINDOWHEIGHT / 3))
drawText(' Press a key to play again.', font, windowSurface, (WINDOWWIDTH / 3) - 80, (WINDOWHEIGHT / 3) + 50)
pygame.display.update()
waitForPlayerToPressKey()
# gameOverSound.stop()

Other commands:

BLACK = (0, 0, 0)
WHITE = (255, 255, 255)
RED = (255, 0, 0)
GREEN = (0, 255, 0)
BLUE = (0, 0, 255)

windowSurface.fill( WHITE)

pygame.draw.line( windowSurface, BLUE, (60, 60), (120, 60), 4)

pygame.draw.circle( windowSurface, BLUE, (300, 50), 20, 0)

pygame.draw.ellipse( windowSurface, RED, (300, 250, 40, 80), 1)

pygame.draw.rect( windowSurface, RED, (20, 20, 40, 40))

pygame.draw.polygon( windowSurface, GREEN, (( 146, 0), (291, 106), (236, 277), (56, 277), (0, 106)))

pixArray = pygame.PixelArray( windowSurface)
pixArray = BLACK
del pixArray

# update the monitor
pygame.display.update()

Back to the Top

``````

=================================
=================================

## Other Labs

=================================
=================================

Area of a Rectangle

Volume of a Sphere

Roman Numerals

Fibonacci

(average, standard deviation, semester grades, ...)

Tic-Tac-Toe

Hangman

Encrypt Data

Magic Squares

Matrix Battle:

Checkers:

Tax Table

Back to the Top
``````

http://invpy.com/book

python3 -m pip install pygame
python3 -m pygame.examples.aliens

import pygame
pygame.init()

GUI programming is not standard in python

https://opensource.com/life/16/5/open-source-python-gui-frameworks

https://docs.python.org/3/library/othergui.html

http://invpy.com/book

python3 -m pip install pygame
python3 -m pygame.examples.aliens

import pygame
pygame.init()

GUI programming is not standard in python

https://opensource.com/life/16/5/open-source-python-gui-frameworks

https://docs.python.org/3/library/othergui.html

Online IDE's for Python:

https://www.onlinegdb.com/edit/SyIjHpHhI

https://www.jdoodle.com/python3-programming-online/

Back to the Top

``````
=================================
=================================

## Importance of Computers and Intro to Python

=================================
=================================
``````

Importance of Software

Software or computer programs are what makes a
computer do stuff.  Without software, a computer
is nothing but a big paper weight.  It takes both
hardware and software (computer programs, apps,
code, ...).

There are millions of lines of computer code
(instructions, commands) in a computer, phone,
car, automation lines, robots, planes, trains, etc.

Software is everywhere!!!

Businesses use it to keep track of products,
employees, etc.  Schools use it to keep track
of student information, grades, etc. as well as
to keep track of employees, pay, purchasing, etc.

Every company uses computers and lots of software
to run their operations, including schools, etc.

Software is a big mystery to a lot of people!
And it has caused a lot of problems in industry,
education, etc.

I have been told several times that I was fired by
assistant principals and company execs because they
did not understand software (I luckily never got
fired).

I read once a few years ago that more companies have
gone bankrupt because of poor decisions about software
(including a company that I used to work for).

Hardware and Software (Working together)

CPU
?????????
This component is responsible for carrying
out our instructions (commands).

RAM Memory
?????????
This is very fast memory that is used to store
the OS instructions, all program data, and every
program's code that is open.  The OS is loaded
when the computer is first started (turned on).
We call this booting the computer.  When you open
an application, it is loaded (copied) from external
storage into the RAM memory along with the data.
When you terminate a program, the program instructions
and data are erased from the RAM memory.

When you shut down (turn off) your computer, all of
the programs and data in RAM memory are gone.  It is
like turning off a light.

ROM Memory
?????????
This memory is what starts your computer system when
you turn it on (boot it).  It contains the basic start
up commands to allow you to set which drive is the bootable
drive, the boot order, the start up commands to load the
operating system into RAM memory, and more.

Mother Board
This hardware is used to connect the CPU, RAM memory,
drives, ports, etc.

External Storage
Hard Drive (ssd drives, flash drives, etc.)
These devices permanently hold your programs and data,
and if bootable, holds the OS as well.

Software
Computer programs (apps) including the OS.

Operating System (OS)  (Windows, Mac OS, Linux, ...)
This is the program that is in total control of the
machine.  It displays the desktop or command line,
and allows you to copy files, delete files, organize
files (like in folders, etc.), etc.

What is a computer program? (application)
A computer program is a sequence of instructions
(commands, statements) for a computer to follow.

What is a computer programming language?
A computer language contains high level
commands to allow you to communicate with
the CPU.

Can you name some computer langages?
C, C++, ?????????

Compilers vs. Interpreted languages
Many languages need to be compiled or translated
into machine code before you can run (execute)
them.  (C, C++, Pascal, Java, Swift, etc.)

Interpreted languages are converted to machine
code as they run.  Interpreted languages are
generally slightly slower (less efficient) than
compiled code. (Python)

Think about how you might talk to a French person
if you did not speak any French.

What is an IDE?
An IDE is an ?????????.
It contains an editor for typing in our code
(instructions, commands), a button or menu item
to run our program, and other utilities.
IDLE, JDoodle for Python, Eclipse are examples of
some IDE's.

What is an algorithm?
An algorithm is a step by step set of ?????????
to someone or some thing to carry out a task.

What does it mean to execute or run a program?
It means to carry out the instructions in your
program.

What is a variable?
A variable refers to a place in RAM memory
where you can store information (numbers,
strings of characters, etc.)  Think of box
that holds data.

Variables have names so that us humans can
refer to them.  Variable names should be
descriptive of what kind of information they
refer to.

After that you can have more letters or numbers or
the underscore(_) character.  However, you can not
have a space character or any other special characters
in your name.  We should always user lower case letters,
except on word boundaries for long names.  Variables
can not be key words of the programming language.
Also, names are case sensitive.  So, X and x are actually
different names.

Some examples of variable names:
x
y
b
num
totalSum

--------   --------   --------
|  12  |  |   7   |   |  5   |
--------   --------   --------

A simple Python set of instructions (commands):
print("Python Sample Program")
print()
x = 7
y = 5

Another simple Python set of instructions (commands):
# The # tells the interpreter to ignore the line
print("Python Sample Program 2")
print()
x = int(input("Enter the value for x: "))
y = int(input("Enter the value for y: "))

Some examples of illegal variable names:
total Sum
num@
sum!

Back to the Top

``````
=================================
=================================

## Programming Assignments

=================================
=================================
``````

Back to the Top

############################################################################
############################################################################
Program #0A - Write a program that prints out your name and:
My favorite color is ???.
My favorite song is ???.
My favorite tv program is ???.
My favorite food is ???.

Remember, a computer runs or executes our commands (instructions)
in the order that we specify.

You will be using the print instruction (command).
Example: print("I love music")

Sample Output:
My favorite color is red.
My favorite song is Fun, Fun, Fun.
My favorite tv program is Star Trek.
My favorite food is turkey.

############################################################################
############################################################################
Program #0B - Write a program that prints out some math expressions:

Remember, a computer runs or executes our commands (instructions)
in the order that we specify.

You will be using the print instruction (command).
Type in the following code or make up some on your own:
print("2 + 8 - 5")
print(2 + 8 - 5)
print()

print("2 * 8 - 5")
print(2 * 8 - 5)
print()

print("2 * 8 / 4")
print(2 * 8 / 4)
print()

Sample Output:
2 + 8 - 5
5

2 * 8 - 5
11

2 * 8 / 4
4

############################################################################
Welcome (Read from the keyboard or stdin, print, String concatenation (+)
############################################################################
Program #1 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter their first name.
Print out Welcome first name! (use the + operator to join strings)
The command or instruction to let the user enter information is:
firstName = input("Enter your first name: ")

firstName is a variable name that I made up.
Variables can hold data (Strings, numbers, etc.)
When you make up a variable name to hold data, you must
letters and/or digits (no spaces or special characters).

Here is some starting code that you can type in to get
started.

print("Welcome")
print()
print()
firstName = input("Enter your first name: ")
etc.

Sample Output:

Welcome

Enter your first name: (user enters a name like maybe Tom)

Welcome Tom!

############################################################################
Welcome (Read from the keyboard or stdin, print, String concatenation (+)
############################################################################
Program #2 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter their first name.
Then prompt the user to enter their last name.
Print out Welcome, first name space last name

Sample Output:

Welcome

Enter your first name: (user enters first name like maybe Tom)
Enter your last name:  (user enters last name like maybe Baker)

Welcome, Tom Baker!

############################################################################
Area of a Rectangle  (Read from the keyboard or stdin (input), print(), math operations)
############################################################################
Program #3 - Write a program that prompts the user for the length and width
of a rectangle, calculates the area, and prints out:
The area of the rectangle is ???

Here is some starting code.
print("Area of a Rectangle")
print()
print()
length = int(input("Enter the length of a rectangle: "))
etc.

Sample Output:

Area of a Rectangle

Enter the length of a rectangle: (user enters maybe 8)
Enter the width of a rectangle:  (user enters maybe 5)

The area is 40 square units.

############################################################################
Area of a Circle (Read from the keyboard (input), print(), math operations)
############################################################################
Program #4 - Write a program that prompts the user for the radius of a circle,
calculate the area, and then print out:
The area of the circle is ???.???? square units.
Use math.pi for pi.
NOTE: Add:  import math  at the top of your program and say math.pi
Or use:  from math import * (and just say pi)

Sample Output:

Area of a Circle

Enter the radius of a circle: (user enters maybe 5)

The area of the circle is 78.53975 square units.

############################################################################
Celsius to Fahrenheit (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations)
############################################################################
Program #5 - Write a program that prompts the user for the Fahrenheit temperature,
calculate the Celsius temperature and then print out:
(celsius = 5/9 * (fahrenheit - 32)

The Celsius temperature is ???.???? degrees.

Sample Output:

Fahrenheit to Celsius

Enter the Fahrenheit temperature: (user enters maybe 70)

The Celsius temperature is ???.???? degrees.

(70 degrees Fahrenheit is about 21.1111111111111 degrees in Celsius)

############################################################################
Surface Area of a Cube (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations)
############################################################################
Program #6 - Write a program that prompts the user for the length of a side for a cube,
calculate the surface area (6*side*side), and then print out:
The surface area of the cube is ???.???? square units.
You can use the double type or an integer type for your variables.

Sample Output:

Surface Area of a Cube

Enter the length of one side: (user enters maybe 4)

The surface area is ???.???? square units

(if one side is 5, the surface area is 150.0 square units)

############################################################################
Batting Average (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations)
############################################################################
Program #7A - Write a program that prompts the user for the number of hits,
the number of at bats, and the number of walks.
You can call your variables hits, atBats, and walks.
Find the batting average and the on base percentage:
battingAvg = hits/atBats
onBasePCT = (hits + walks) / (atBats + walks)

Sample Output:

Batting Average

Enter the number of hits:    (user enters maybe 2)
Enter the number of at bats: (user enters maybe 8)
Enter the number of walks:   (user enters maybe 2)

The user's batting average is  .250
The user's on base average is .400

############################################################################
Throwing Percentage (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations)
#### (also called passing percentage)
############################################################################
Throwing Percentage #7B - Write a program that prompts the user for the number
of passes completed and the number of passes thrown.
You can call your variables passesCompleted and passesAttempted.
Find the throwing percentage:
throwingPCT = passesCompleted/passesAttempted

Sample Output:

Throwing Percentage

Enter the number of passes completed:       (user enters maybe 4)
Enter the number of passes thrown:          (user enters maybe 8)

The throwing percentage is  .500

############################################################################
Winning Percentage (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations)
############################################################################
Winning Percentage #7C - Write a program that prompts the user for the number
of wins and the number of losses.
You can call your variables wins and losses.
winningPCT = wins/(wins + losses)

Find the winning percentage:

Sample Output:

Winning Percentage

Enter the number of wins:    (user enters maybe 3)
Enter the number of losses:  (user enters maybe 7)

The winning percentage is  .300

############################################################################
Slope of a Line (Read from the keyboard(input), print(), math operations, if else)
############################################################################
Program #7D - Write a program that prompts the user for two points (2D).
You can call your variables x1,y1 and x2,y2.
Find the slope of the line, and then print out:
The slope of the line is ???.????
slope = (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1)

Sample Output:

The Slope of a Line

Enter the value for x1: (user enters maybe 1)
Enter the value for y1: (user enters maybe 1)

Enter the value for x2: (user enters maybe 2)
Enter the value for y2: (user enters maybe 2)

The slope of the line is ???.????

(The slope for (1,1) and (2,2) is 1.0)

############################################################################
Letter Grades (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations, if else if)
############################################################################
Program #8 - Write a program that prompts the user for a numerical grade.
Find the letter grade, and then print out:
You can use an integer type for your input variable.

95 and above - A
87 - 94      - B
75 - 86      - C
70 - 74      - D
69 and below - F

Sample Output:

Enter the numerical grade: (user enters maybe 82)

The letter grade is a C

############################################################################
Positive or Negative or Zero (Read from the keyboard, print, math operations,
if else if)
############################################################################
Program #9 - Write a program that prompts the user for a number,
and then prints out:
The number is positive or negative or zero.
You can use an integer type for your input variable.

Sample Output:
Postive or Negative or Zero?

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 7)

7 is a positive number.

############################################################################
Multiplication Table (Read from the keyboard, print,
math operations, for loops)
############################################################################
Program #10 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out a multiplication table for that number.
You can use the integer type for your variable.

Multiplication Table

Enter a number (0 - 9): (user enters maybe 7)

for x in range(0,10):
???????
7 x 2  = 14
...
7 x 9  = 63

############################################################################
The Guessing Game(Read from the keyboard, print,
math operations, while loops)
############################################################################
Program #11 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
The user will be guessing a number between 1 - 100.
Use  number = random.randrange(1,101)
They will get 7 guesses to win, else they lose.
You can use the integer type for your variable.
Use a for loop.  for numTries in range(1,8):

Sample Run:

The Guessing Game

low = 1  high = 100
You number is too low!

low = 51  high = 100

low = 51  high = 74

low = 51  high = 62
You number is too low!

low = 57  high = 62

low = 57  high = 59
You number is too low!

low = 59  high = 59

You guessed the number!!!

An Outline for the Guessing Game

import random

# print out the title "The Guessing Game"

# print two blank lines

# declare a variable called low and set it to 1
# then declare a variable called high and set it to 100

# declare a variable called number to hold the
# computer's number that the user will try to guess
# use random.randrange(1,101)

# declare a variable called userGuess that will hold the
# user's guess and set it to 0.

# declare a variable called numTries that will hold the
# user's number of tries and set it to 1.

# now we will loop

while numTries <= 7:

print("low =",low," high =", high)

# it in a variable called userGuess
# convert the input to an int

# check and see if the userGuess == number
# and if so break out of the loop
# the keyword to break out of the loop is break

# elif check and see if the userGuess < number
# and if so:
# print out "Your number is too low!"
# and then set low = userGuess + 1

# else:
# print out "Your number is too high!"
# and then set high = userGuess - 1

# add 1 to the variable location called numTries

print()

print()

# check and see if userGuess == number:
# and if so print out "You guessed the number!!!"

# else:
# print out "You lose.  The number was",number

############################################################################
The Dice Game(Read from the keyboard, print,
math operations, while loops)
############################################################################
Program #12 - Write a program that simulates tossing dice.

The user will toss dice (2).
You will be getting two numbers between 1 and 6 (inclusive).
die1 = random.randrange(1,7)
die2 = random.randrange(1,7)
You will add these numbers together.
If the sum is 7 or 11, the player wins, else they lose.
You can use the integer type for your variable.

Sample Run:

The Dice Game

Are you ready to toss the dice (Yes or No)? y

You tossed a 7 .  You win!

Are you ready to toss the dice (Yes or No)? y

You tossed a 6 .  You lose!

Are you ready to toss the dice (Yes or No)? y

You tossed a 7 .  You win!

Are you ready to toss the dice (Yes or No)? y

You tossed a 12 .  You lose!

Are you ready to toss the dice (Yes or No)? n

Wins: 2
Losses: 2

Thank you for playing dice!!!

############################################################################
Factors of a Number
############################################################################
Program #13 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out all of the factors of the number
You can use the integer type for your variable.

Sample Output:

The Factors of a Number

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8)

The factors of 8 are: 1 2 4 8

############################################################################
Print the factors of a number and how many factors (Read from the keyboard,
print, math operations % ==, for loops, if else)
############################################################################
Program #14 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out all of the factors of the number and how many factors.
You can use the integer type for your variables.
You will need a count variable starting at 0.
You will need a for loop to loop through all the possible
divisors (1 - number):  for d in range(1,number+1)

Sample Output:

The Factors of a Number

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8)

The factors of 8 are: 1 2 4 8
There are 4 factors.

############################################################################
Print the GCF of two numbers (Read from the keyboard,
print, math operations % ==, for loops, if else, &&)
############################################################################
Program #15 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter two numbers.
Print out the GCF of the two numbers.
You can use the integer type for your variables.
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

Sample Output:

The GCF of two Numbers

Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 8)
Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 12)

The GCF of 8 and 12 is 4

Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 12)
Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 16)

The GCF of 12 and 16 is 4

Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Print the GCF of two numbers (Read from the keyboard,
print, math operations % ==, for loops, if else, &&, and functions)
############################################################################
Program #16 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter two numbers.
Print out the GCF of the two numbers.
Write a function called gcf.  Call the function to get your result.
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0 0

define gcf(num1, num2):

You can use the integer type for your variables.

Sample Output:

The GCF of two Numbers

Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 8)
Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 12)

The GCF of 8 and 12 is 4

Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 12)
Enter the second number: (user enters maybe 16)

The GCF of 12 and 16 is 4

Enter the first number : (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Print the sum of the digits of a number (Read from the keyboard,
print, math operations, % ==, for loops, functions )
############################################################################
Program #17 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out the sum of the digits for the number.
Write a function to find the sum.
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

def sum(num):
if num == 0:
return 0
if num < 0:
num = abs(num)
sum = 0
while num > 0:
rightDigit = num % 10
sum = sum + rightDigit # adds right digit to sum
num = num // 10 # divides by 10 and throws away fraction
# now return the sum

# main program is below

# print title
# print 2 blank lines

while True:

# see if the number is 0, and if so, break the loop

# print out the result (call sum(num))

# print out "Goodbye"

Sample Output:

The Sum of the Digits for a Number

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 123)

The sum of the digits of 123 is 6.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 325)

The sum of the digits of 325 is 10.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Print the vowels of a String (Read from the keyboard,
print, slicing, for loops, if else, &&)
############################################################################
Program #18 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String.
Print out each vowel in the String (a, e, i, o, u).
You can use the String type for your variable.
Stay in a loop until the user enters the empty String.

Hint:
for ch in myString:
if ch == "a" or ch == "e":  # finish this
# print (ch, end="")

Sample Output:

The Vowels in a String

Enter a String: (user enters maybe catalog)

The vowels of catalog are: aao

Enter a String: (user enters maybe computer)

The vowels of computer are: oue

Enter a String: (user enters maybe nothing)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Print the capital letters of a String (Read from the keyboard,
print, slicing, for loops, if else, &&)
############################################################################
Program #19 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String.
Print out each capital letter in the String.
Stay in a loop until the user enters the empty String.
Hint: if ch >= 'A' and ch <= 'Z':

Sample Output:

The Capital Letters in a String

Enter a String: (user enters maybe CatALog)

The capital letters of CatALog are: CAL

Enter a String: (user enters maybe ComPuTer)

The capital letters of ComPuTer are: CPT

Enter a String: (user enters maybe nothing)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Prime Numbers
############################################################################
Program #20 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out whether the number is prime or not.
Write a function to find the result (boolean).
Hint: A prime number has exactly 2 factors.
Count the factors as you find them.
Check the count after your loop has finished,
and see if you have exactly 2, and return True
Otherwise return False.

Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

def isPrime(num):
count = 0

# loop and count all of the divisors of num

# check and see if count is == to 2, and if
# so return True
# otherwise return False

# main program
# print the title
# print 2 blank lines

while True:
# prompt the user to enter a number

# print a blank line

# check and see if the number is 0, and if so
# break out of the loop

if isPrime(number):
# print out the number is prime.
else:
# print out the number is NOT prime.

Sample Output:

Prime Numbers

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8)

8 is NOT prime.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 17)

17 is prime.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Perfect Numbers
############################################################################
Program #21 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out whether the number is perfect or not.
A perfect number has divisors that add up to the number.
For example, 6 is perfect since factors 1, 2, 3 add to 6.
Write a function to find the result (boolean True or False).
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

def isPerfect(num):
sum = 0

# loop through all of the possible factors, but
# do NOT include the number itself
# if you find a factor, then add it to the sum
# sum = ??? + num

# check and see if the sum == num, and if
# so, return True else return False

Sample Output:

Perfect Numbers

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 8)

8 is NOT perfect.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 6)

6 is perfect.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Base Two Numbers
############################################################################
Program #22 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out the number in base 2.
You can use the integer type for your variable.
Call the bin(number) function to find the result (String).
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

Base 2 numbers have only two digits, 0 and 1
Base 10 numbers have 10 digits, 0...9

Example 1:
0  1  0  1  1  0   <- binary digits
32 16  8  4  2  1   <- place value

The binary number in base 10 is ??????????????

Example 2:
1   1   0   1   1   1   <- binary digits
32  16   8   4   2   1   <- place value

The binary number in base 10 is ??????????????

Example 3:
0   0   1   1   1   1   <- binary digits
32  16   8   4   2   1   <- place value

The binary number in base 10 is ??????????????

Sample Output:

Binary Numbers

Enter a number to convert into binary: 20

The number 20 in binary form is 0b10100

Enter a number to convert into binary: 16

The number 16 in binary form is 0b10000

Enter a number to convert into binary: 18

The number 18 in binary form is 0b10010

Enter a number to convert into binary:

############################################################################
Base Eight Numbers
############################################################################
Program #23 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out the number in base 8.
You can use the integer type for your variable.
Call the oct(number) function to find the result (String).
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

Base 8 numbers have 8 digits, 0...7
Base 10 numbers have 10 digits, 0...9

Example 1:
0   3  5   <- octal digits
64  8  1   <- place value

The octal number in base 10 is ??????????????

Example 2:
0   2  0   <- octal digits
64  8  1   <- place value

The octal number in base 10 is ??????????????

Example 3:
0   2  7   <- octal digits
64  8  1   <- place value

The octal number in base 10 is ??????????????

Sample Output:

Base Eight Numbers

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 17)

17 in base 8 is 21.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 15)

15 in base 8 is 17.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Base Sixteen (Hex) Numbers
############################################################################
Program #24 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a number.
Print out the number in base 16.
You can use the integer type for your variable.
Call the hex(number) function to find the result (String).
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

Base 16 numbers have 16 digits, 0...9, A, B, C, D, E, F
Base 10 numbers have 10 digits, 0...9

Example 1:
0   2  5   <- hex digits
256  16  1   <- place value

The hex number in base 10 is ??????????????

Example 2:
0   1  C   <- hex digits
256  16  1   <- place value

The hex number in base 10 is ??????????????

Example 3:
0   2  A   <- hex digits
256  16  1   <- place value

The hex number in base 10 is ??????????????

Sample Output:

Base Sixteen (Hex) Numbers

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 17)

17 in base 16 is 10.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 45)

45 in base 16 is 2d.

Enter a number: (user enters maybe 0)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Simple Encryption
############################################################################
Program #25 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String (a message).
Print out the encrypted string based on the following algorithm.
Write a function to find the result (String).
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

def encrypt(s):

# this string will hold the encrypted form
encryptedString = ""

for i in range(0,len(s)):
# get the character in the ith position of s
ch = s[i]

# convert the character into numeric format
# use the ord(ch) function
x = ord(ch)

# change the value of x by adding four or adding seven
# based upon it's position within the String
# if the i is an even number, add 4 to x
# else add 7 to x
if i % 2 == 0:
x = ?????
else:
x = ?????

# convert x back into it's character format
# use the chr() function
ch = ?????

# add the character to the end of encryptedString
encryptedString = encryptedString + ch

Sample Output:

Encryption

Enter a message: (user enters maybe Hello World)

Hello World encrypted is Llpss'[vvsh

Enter a message: (user enters maybe Python is fun!)

Python is fun! encrypted is ???????

Enter a message: (user enters maybe nothing)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Simple Decrypt
############################################################################
Program #26 - Write a program that prompts the user to enter a String (a message)
in encrypted form using the algorithm above.
Print out the decrypted string based on reversing the algorithm above.
Write a function to find the result (String).
Stay in a loop until the user enters 0

def decrypt(encryptedString)

# reverse what you did in the above problem
# you will get characters from one by one
# encryptedString, convert them, and then add
# them to s

s = ""

return s

Sample Output:

Encryption

Enter a message: (user enters maybe Llpss'[vvsh)

Llpss'[vvsh decrypted is Hello World

Enter a message: (user enters maybe Nhzh\$pw'j|r()

Nhzh\$pw'j|r( decrypted is Python is fun!

Enter a message: (user enters maybe nothing)

Goodbye!

############################################################################
Simple Lists (Arrays)
############################################################################
Program #27 - Write a program that finds the largest number in a list (Array).
Write a function to do this.  Do not use max()!  Use a loop.

def findLargest(array):
largest = array  # so far

# now loop through all the numbers in the list
for number in array:
# see if number > largest, and if so,
#     largest = number

# return the value of largest

# print the title "Largest Number"

# print 2 blank lines

one = [12,3,6,8,14,12,1]
two = [1,2,8,4,9,6,6,8,2]

largestOfOne = findLargest(one)

# now print it!
The largest number in array one is 14.

# print a blank line

# now do array two

largestOfTwo = findLargest(two)

# print out The largest number in array two is 9.

############################################################################
Simple Lists (Arrays)
############################################################################
Program #28 - Write a program that finds the number of even numbers in the array.
Write a function to do this.

def countEvens(array):
count = 0

# loop through all of the numbers in array

# each time check and see if the number is even, and if so,

# return the count

one = [12,3,6,8,14,12,1];
two = [1,2,8,4,9,6,6,8,2];

numberOfEvens = countEvens(one)
# now print it!
The number of even numbers in array one is 4

# now do array two
numberOfEvens = countEvens(two)
# now print it!
The number of even numbers in array two is 7

############################################################################
Simple Lists (Arrays)
############################################################################
Program #29 - Write a program that finds the average of the numbers in the array.
Write a function to do this.

def findAverage(array):
sum = 0
count = 0

# loop through each number in the array,

# sum = ??? + ???????

# return your average	(sum / count)

one = [12,3,6,8,14,12,1]
two = [1,2,8,4,9,6,6,8,2]

averageOne = findAverage(one)

# now print it!
The average of the numbers in list one is ???.?

# print a blank line

# now do array two

############################################################################
Simple Arrays
############################################################################
Program #30 - Write a program that finds and prints the first
n fibonacci numbers.
Write a function to do this.

def findFibonacciNumbers():

list = [1, 1] # start with the first two numbers and append more

for i in range(2,20):
# find the next fibonacci number
# nextNumber = ????

# list.append (?????)

def printFiboList(list):
# on the same line.	 Separate your numbers with a space

# print a title
# print 2 blank lines

while True:
# Ask the user for how many fibonacci numbers that they want to see
# num = ?????

# if they enter 0, break out of the loop

# below we call our function to create the list of fibonacci numbers
fiboList = findFibonacciNumbers(num)

# we now print the fibonacci numbers all on the same line
# by calling a function to do this
printFiboList(fiboList)

# print a blank line

print()
print("Goodbye")

############################################################################
Simple Arrays
############################################################################
Program #31 - Write a program that finds if an array is strictly increasing.
Write a method to do this.  Strictly increasing means that
the numbers continue to increase.
Example 1:
[1, 5, 7, 12, 70, 80] is strictly increasing
[1, 5, 5, 12, 70, 80] is NOT strictly increasing (5 - 5)
[1, 5, 7, 6, 70, 80] is NOT strictly increasing (7 - 6)

def isStrictlyIncreasing(array):
# return true if it is strictly increasing else false
# you will need a for indexed based loop
# access each ith number and see if it is greater than or equal to
# the i+1 element, and if so return False
# after the loop is over, return True

one = [1,3,6,8,14,16,18]
two = [1,2,8,4,9,6,6,8,2]

if isStrictlyIncreasing(one):

# print that the number is strictly increasing

else:

# print that the number is NOT strictly increasing

# now do array two

############################################################################
Simple Arrays
############################################################################
Program #32 - Write a program that trims the noise from a music file.

def printMusic(samples)
# print out each number in the list followed by space
# use a for loop (either a for indexed base loop or a for each loop)

def trimNoise(samples, amplitude):
# if a number in the list > amplitude then change the
# value to amplitude   list[i] = amplitude
# if a number in the list < -amplitude then change the
# value to -amplitude   list[i] = -amplitude
# you will need to loop through each element with a
# for indexed loop.

samples = [40,2532,17,-2300,-17,-4000,2000,1048,-420,33,15,-32,2030,3223]

print("The original list of numbers are:")

printMusic(samples)
# your original list should be:
40 2532 17 -2300 -17 -4000 2000 1048, 420 33 15 -32 2030 3223

print()

trimNoise(samples, 2000)

print("The trimmed list of numbers are:")

# now print out the music again
printMusic(samples)

# your trimmed list should be:
40 2000 17 -2000 -17 -2000 2000 1048, 420 33 15 -32 2000 2000

############################################################################
List
############################################################################
Program #33 - Write a program that reads in the names of people and their
age.  Print the name and age on the console one per line.
Use 2 Lists.

The List has the following functions and methods!

list.append(object)         - adds an object to the end of the list

list.insert(index, object)  - inserts the object at the given position

len(list)                   - returns how many objects are in our list

list.reverse()              - reverses the list

list.sort()                 - sorts the list (small to large)

list.remove(object)         - removes object from list (others slide down)

list.pop()                  - removes and returns the last object in the list

max(list)                   - returns the largest object

min(list)                   - returns the smallest object

list                     - accesses the object in the zero position

def printNamesAndAges(names, ages):
# you should print out each name and age on the same line
# (one person per line)
# use a for loop

for i in range(0,len(names):
# print the name and age

# create an empty List that can hold names and another for the ages

names = []

ages = []

# use a while loop since we do not know how many names

while True:

# prompt the user to enter a person's name
name = ?????("......")

# if name is empty break

# prompt the user to enter that person's age
name = ?????("......")

# if they enter nothing, we will assume that they are finished
# and break out of the loop
if name == "":
break

# add the name to our list of names

names.append(???)

# add the age to our list of ages

ages.append(???)

# print a blank line

print()

print()

# now print out the names and ages
printNames(names, ages)

print()

# now sort the names and print them out again
# you should notice a problem!!!!!!!!!

############################################################################
List
############################################################################
Program #34 - Write a program that reads in the names of items and the
cost of some items that you buy.  You will use the float
data type rather than the int data type.  So cast your input
to a float(input(......)) rather than int(input(......))
Print out each product name and cost on the same line
of the console.
Then print the total cost of all of the items.  Use a List
to hold the names and a separate list to hold the costs.

def printItemsAndCosts(costs):
# print each item's name and the cost for that item.
# use a loop

def getTotalCost(costs):
# find the total cost for all items and return it
# use a loop

sum = 0

# now a loop to add each cost to the sum

# now return the cost

def printTotalCost(costs):
# print the total cost of all items
# print out:  Total Cost: \$xxxx.xx

totalCost = getTotalCost(costs)

# now print it

items = []  # creates an empty list to hold all the names of the items
costs = []  # creates an empty list to hold the cost of each items

# read in all of the costs
# use a while loop since we do not know how many costs

while True:

# prompt the user to enter the name of the item

# if the name is empty, break out of the loop

# prompt the user to enter the cost of the item
# remember to type cast it to a float

# add the name of the item to our list of items

items.append(???)

# add the cost to our list of costs

costs.append(???)

# now print out the costs
printCosts(costs)

printTotalCost(costs)

print()
print()

CLASSES ARE NOW USED!!!!!!!!

############################################################################
List
############################################################################
Program #35 - Write a class that stores information about a student (Student).
Store in the class the first name, last name, quarter 1 grade,
quarter 2 grade, and the average.

# You must include this import statement as your first line
from operator import attrgetter

class Student:

# we generally put our class variables or static variables here
# these variables are shared by all objects
# however, we won't need any for this assignment

# We then generally define a constructor
# to create and initialize our instance variables (members)
def __init__(self, firstName, lastName, q1, q2):

self.firstName = firstName  # creates instance variable self.firstName
self.lastName = lastName # creates instance variable self.lastName

self.q1 = ?

self.q2 = ?

self.average = ??? # calculate the semester grade

def getFirstNameLastName(self)
# return self.firstName + " " + self.lastName
return ???

# this is NOT inside the class
def printStudents(students):
# print out each student's full name, q1, q2, and average
# use a for each loop

for student in students:
# student is referring to one student in the list
# you can access info in the student's object by using:
# student.firstName, student.lastName,
# student.q1, student.q2, student.average
# you can also called any functions inside the Student class
# student.getFirstNameLast()  but don't pass it self

# so print this student's full name, q1, q2, and average

# this is NOT inside the class
def findTheStudentWithTheHighesAverage(students):
# Define a variable to refer to the student with
# the highest grade.  Assign to it students
studentWithHighestAverage = ?????

# use a for each loop to see if anybody has a higher average
# Below is a for each loop.
# You could also use a for indexed based loop
# for i in range(0,len(students)):

for student in students:
# student is referring to one student in the list
# you can access info in the student's object by using:
# student.firstName, student.lastName,
# student.q1, student.q2, student.average

# See if student has a higher grade than studentWithHighestAverage,
# and if so, then studentWithHighestAverage should now refer to
# student.
if ?????????.average > ???????.average:
studentWithHighestAverage = ??????

return ??????????

# this starts the main program
students = []  # creates an empty list

# use a while loop since we do not know how many persons

while True:

# prompt the user to enter a person's first name
# read it in using input()
firstName = input("Enter the person's name: ");

# if empty break out of the loop

# prompt the user to enter a person's last name
# read it in  using input("?????????")

# prompt the user to enter a student's q1 grade

# prompt the user to enter a student's q2 grade

# creates a Student object and passes to it the info
student = Student(firstName, lastName, q1, q2)

# add the Student object to our list

students.append(???)

# now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade,
# and their average
printStudents(students)

# Now sort the students
students = sorted(students, key=attrgetter('lastName','firstName'))
# only works with the import statement from operator import attrgetter

# now print out the students, their q1 and q2 grade,
# and their average
printStudents(students)

############################################################################
List of Objects
############################################################################
Program #36 - Write a class that stores information about a product to buy.
Store in the class the barcode, item name, price,
inventory, and the amount of tax to charge.

class Item:

# We then generally define a constructor or initializer
# to create and initialize our instance variables (members).
# When an Item is created (and we can create many of these)
# we send to this constructor or initializer the information
# which is then stored temporarily in the parameter variables.
# barcode, itemName, price, inventory, and taxRate are the names of
# the parameter variables that receive the incoming data.
# self.barcode, self.itemName, self.price, self.inventory,
# and self.taxRate are the instance variables which are permanent.
# The parameter variables are created, assigned the incoming values,
# but then are destroyed at the end of the function.
def __init__(self, barcode, itemName, price, inventory, taxRate):

self.barcode = barcode   # creates instance variable self.barcode
self.itemName = itemName # creates instance variable self.itemName

self.price = ?????

self.inventory = ???????

self.taxRate = ????????   # the tax is the percent (like maybe 0.0825)

def getTaxOnItem(self):
# return the tax for this sale (taxRate * price)
return 0  # change this (do the math)

# END OF class

# this is NOT inside the class
def printItems(items):
# print out each item's name, price, and tax to be paid
# use a for each loop

for item in items:
# item is referring to one item in the list called items
# you can access info in the item's object by using:
# item.barcode, item.itemName,
# item.price
# you can also call any functions inside the Item class
# For example: item.getTaxOnItem()  but don't pass it self

# so print this item's name, price, and tax to be paid

# Also, if an item is low on inventory (less than 5)
# print out the message Low Inventory: Only ? items left

# print a blank line
print()

return

def searchForItemByBarcode(items, barcode):
for item in items:
if item.??????? == ???????:
return item
return "" # we did not find the item with this barcode

# this starts the main program

# items will be a list that holds all of the items in our store.
items = []

# We will now add Item objects to our list of items
item = Item("78645", "Bread", 3.99, 55, 0.0825)
items.append(item)

item = Item("79644", "Campbell's Vegetable Soup 8 oz", 2.49, 3, 0.0825)
items.append(item)

item = Item("79645", "Amy's Vegetable Soup 8 oz", 2.37, 2, 0.0825)
items.append(item)

item = Item("79688", "Amy's Vegetable Soup 12 oz", 3.49, 12, 0.0825)
items.append(item)

# these would be scanned and we would get the barcode 1 by 1
# this program the basics of how this would work

# search for items and print out the name, cost, and tax for each
# item.  Also add up the total cost, total tax paid, and the
# final bill to be paid.

totalCost = 0.00

totalTax = 0.00

# find the item in the items list by calling the
# function searchForItemByBarcode and passing or
# sending to it the items and the barcode in that order.

item = searchForItemByBarcode(?????, ??????)

# use item.price to refer to the price of this item
# use item.inventory to refer to the inventory of this item

totalCost = ????? + ????????

totalTax = ?????? + item.getTaxOnItem()

# now print out the total cost without tax, the amount of tax to pay,
# and the final bill
finalBill = ????   # do the math

# print it here with one value per line
# For example:  print("Total cost:   ", totalCost)
# then you would print your total tax, and then your final bill.
?????????
?????????
?????????

print()
print("Thank you for shopping at The Best Store")
print()

############################################################################
List of Objects
############################################################################
Program #37 - Write a class that stores information about your driving record.

class DriversRecord:

# and assign the corresponding parameter values to the
# self variables (instance variables or members)

self.????? = ?????

self.????? = ???????

self.????? = ????????

# END OF class

# this starts the main program

# drivers will be a list that holds all of the DriversRecord objects.
# The list will start out empty.
drivers = []

# We will now add DriversRecord objects to our list of drivers
driver = DriversRecord("677892456", "Fred Baker", "AB7864")
drivers.append(item)

# THE LICENSE MUST BE UNIQUE

# Ask the user for the license number of whom you want to find.
# The license will be a String, so do not type cast it.

theDriver = ""  # this will hold the reference to the Driver if we find it

found = False

# Now we will go looking for the license and thus get the driver's info
# We will look through all the drivers until we find it or the loop
# ends.
for driver in drivers:

# driver will refer to one DriversRecord
theDriver = ??????    # this should be the driver
found = ????   # boolean value (don't put False)

# check your found variable and see if it is == True
# print out all the information about the driver
# else:

print()

############################################################################
List of Objects
############################################################################
Program #38 - You will be modifying program #37.

See code above and modify it.
Add an instance variable called points that holds an integer.
When you get a traffic ticket, depending on what you did wrong,
you get points added to your points (this is NOT a good thing
since the insurance companies can now charge you more money, and
if you get too many points, the DMV can take your license away).
You will need to modify your constructor (initializer).  You will
also need to add more object's to your list to test the printing

output and a message.
Example:  Points: 5

Also, check and see if you have more than 10 points, and if so print
out a message like:

############################################################################
List of Objects
############################################################################
Program #39 - You will be creating GameScore objects to hold the

// 1 GameScore Object
//
// We can create the object using the command or instruction:
// game = GameScore("Boston Celtics", 116, "LA Lakers", 112)
//
// If we have a variable called game that
// refers to this object in RAM memory, we
// can use commands or instructions like:
// game.team1
// game.points1
// game.team2
// game.points2

//
// This command or instruction would create room in RAM memory that
// could hold our information.  It will run our init function after
// reserving room in the RAM that will put the info in the object
// for us.
//
// The variable named game would actually hold the memory address of where
// the object was created in RAM memory, and thus we say that it refers to
// (or points to) the object.  RAM memory is byte addressable.
// We have byte 0, byte 1, byte 2, ... byte 78456, byte 78455, ...
// The OS determines where our object will be stored in RAM memory.
// The OS keeps a map of all used memory.
// So, maybe we would get a location starting at byte 78456,
// and thus game would hold that number for us.

// game
// ============
// |  78456   |
// ============

//
// game would refer to this object stored at
// memory location 78456

//
// Location 78456
// =====================================
// |   team1                           |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | "Boston Celtics           |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   points1                         |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 116                       |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   team2                           |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | LA Lakers                 |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   points2                         |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | 112                       |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// |   init                            |
// |   =============================   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   | code goes here            |   |
// |   =============================   |
// |                                   |
// =====================================

class GameScore:

def __init__(self, team1, points1, team2, points2):
self.team1 = team1
self.points1 = points1
self.team2 = team2
self.points2 = points2
# end of init function

# END OF CLASS

# NOTE: games is plural because we are
#       referring to possibly many GameScore objects

# HOW WOULD I CREATE an array or list that can hold
# GameScore objects????????????
games = []

# THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it
# (or append it) to our games list (array)
game = GameScore("Boston Celtics", 116, "LA Lakers", 112)
games.append(game)

# THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it
# (or append it) to our games list (array)
game = GameScore("San Antonio Spurs", 128, "Detroit Pistons", 96)
games.append(game)

# THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it
# (or append it) to our games list (array)
game = GameScore("Houston Rockets", 124, "Indiana Pacers", 119)
games.append(game)

# THIS WILL create a GameScore object and then add it
# (or append it) to our games list (array)
game = GameScore("Dallas Mavericks", 117, "New York Knicks", 115)
games.append(game)

# print the title "Game Scores"
# ??????

# PRINT A BLANK LINE
# ?????

# PRINT A BLANK LINE

print("===============================================")

# NOW LET'S LOOP THROUGH THE ARRAY
# one GameScore object at a time

# HOW MANY games are in the games array or list?????
for i in range(0, len(games)):

# HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's team1 field (variable) ???????
# games[?].team1
print("Team:  ", ???????)

// HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's points1 field (variable)???????
print("Score: ", ????????)

print()

# HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's team2 field (variable) ???????
??????

# HOW WOULD I ACCESS that game's points2 field (variable)???????
??????

// HOW WOULD I PRINT A BLANK LINE TO SEPARATE THE OUTPUT
// OF THIS GameScore object FROM THE NEXT GameScore object???????
???????

print("===============================================")

/*
Sample run:

Game Scores

===============================================
Team:   Boston Celtics
Score:    116

Team:   LA Lakers
Score:    112

===============================================
Team:   San Antonio Spurs
Score:    128

Team:   Detroit Pistons
Score:    96

===============================================
Team:   Houston Rockets
Score:    124

Team:   Indiana Pacers
Score:    119

===============================================
Team:   Dallas Mavericks
Score:    117

Team:   New York Knicks
Score:    115

===============================================

*/

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #40 - Write a program that prints out a 2D array in matrix format and
row major order.  Write a method to do the printing.
Use print("%3d" % (element))

def printMatrix(matrix):

for r in range(0, len(a)):
for c in range(0, len(a[r])):
print("%3d" % (a[r][c]), end=' ') # stay on row
print() # move to next row

one =  [ [1, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ]

two =  [ [2, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [4, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ]

# print matrix one
printMatrix(one)

# now do array two

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #41 - Write a program that prints out 1 row of a 2D array.
Write a method to do the printing.

def printRow(array):
# Remember that array will be referring to just one row.
# So, just print out the one row with each number formatted
# to take up three print positions.  You will need a loop.
# You can use an indexed based loop like
# for i in range(0, len(array)):
#     num = array[i]
#     and now print the number formatted
# OR a for each loop like
# for num in array:
#     and now print the number formatted

# In the list below:
# one is referring to [1, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18]
# one is referring to [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]
# one is referring to [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6]
# in the list below, len(one) is 3 (since there are 3 lists or 3 rows)
# in the list below, len(one) is 7 (since there are 7 elements in the 0 list)
one =  [ [1, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ]

two =  [ [2, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [4, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ]

# print the first element in one's first line
print(one)

# print the second element in one's first line
print(one)

# print the third element in one's first line
print(one)

# print row 0
printRow(one)

# now print row 1

# now print row 2

# use a loop to print all rows by calling printRow for each row
for r in range(len(one)):

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #42 - Write a program that finds the sum of a row.
Print all elements of the row followed by the sum.
Make sure that your output is lined up properly.
Write a method to do the printing.

def findSum(array):

# array will be a list (1d array)
# find the sum and return it
# You will need a loop (either for indexed or for each loop)

def printRow(array):

# array will be a list (1d array)

def printSum(array):

# array will be a list (1d array)
# call the findSum function
# use 4 print positions (formatted)

one =  [1, 3, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18]

two =  [2, 3, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18]

# call printRow and then printSum for each 1d array

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #43 - Write a program that finds the sum of each row.
Print all elements of the row followed by the sum.
Make sure that your output is lined up properly.
Write a method to do the printing.
After doing this, write a method to print out the
sum of each column.

def printRow(array):

define printRowSum(array):

def printAllRowsAndSum(array):

for r in range(0, len(array)):
printRow(array[r]);      # prints out row r
printRowSum(array[r]);   # prints the sum of row r

// call this method after printing out all rows and their sums
def printColumnSum(array, column):

def printSumOfAllColumns(array):

one = [ [1, 3, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18], [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7], [1, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6] ]

two = [ [2, 3, 6, 8,14,16,18], [3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7],[4, 2, 8, 4, 9, 6, 6]]

// Do not use any loops here
// Just make method calls

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #44 - Write a program that finds if X or O is a winner.
Make sure that your output is lined up properly.
Write a method to print out the game board, and then print
out who won.

def printBoard(board):
# print out the board in matrix format

def isWinnerHorizontally(player, board):
# player should be either "X" or "O"
# board should be a 2D array
# return True if you find a winner
# else return False

# We will check row 0 first.
# There is an easier way with loops.  Can you think of how
# See if player is equal to board and
# player is equal to board and
# player is equal to board and
if player == board and player == board and player == board:
return True

# Now check row 1

# Now check row 2

# if none of the above are True, simply return False
return False

def isWinnerVertically(player, board):

def isWinnerOnDiagonal1(player, board):

def isWinnerOnDiagonal2(player, board):

def isWinner(player, board):
# We will call each of the win methods above

# See if player is a winner horizontally
if isWinnerHorizontally(player, board):
return True

# See if player is a winner horizontally
if isWinnerVertically(player, board):
return True

# See if player is a winner on the first diagonal

# See if player is a winner on the second diagonal

# if it gets here, return False since player is NOT a winner

board1 = [ ['X', 'O', 'X'], ['X', 'X', 'O'], ['O', 'O', 'X'] ]
]
board2 = [ ['X', 'O', 'X'], ['X', 'X', 'O'], ['O', 'O', 'X'] ]

board3 = [ ['X', 'O', 'X'], ['X', 'X', 'O'], ['O', 'O', 'X'] ]

printBoard(board1)
print()
if isWinner("X", board1):
print("X is the winner on board1")
elif isWinner("O", board1):
print("O is the winner on board1")
else:
print("There is no winner on board1.  Cat's game!!!")
# print 2 blank lines

# DO THIS FOR board2

# DO THIS FOR board3

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #45 - Write a program that plays tic tac toe but lets the users
enter the positions of where they want to play.
You will need the functions that you wrote above.
Copy and paste them into this program.
Make sure that your output is lined up properly.

# MAIN PROGRAM

print("Tic-Tac-Toe")
print()
print()

while True:  # outer loop of game to play another game

# we will create an empty board for this game
board = [ ['-', '-', '-'], ['-', '-', '-'], ['-', '-', '-'] ]
# print the board

while True: # inner loop that plays 1 game
# player X will choose the row and column to play on.
print("Player X's turn")
row = int(input("Enter your row to play on (1,2,3): "))
col = int(input("Enter your col to play on (1,2,3): "))
row = row - 1
col = col - 1

board[row][col] = "X"

# print the board

# check and see if "X" is a winner
# if so print out that X is a winner and break the loop

print()

# player O will choose the row and column to play on.
print("Player O's turn")
row = int(input("Enter your row to play on (1,2,3): "))
col = int(input("Enter your col to play on (1,2,3): "))
row = row - 1
col = col - 1
board[row][col] = "O"

# print the board

# check and see if "O" is a winner
# if so print out that O is a winner and break the loop

print()
print()

print()
print()
playAgain = input("Would you like to play another game? (y or n)")
if playAgain == "n":
break  # breaks out of outer loop

print()
print()
print("Thank you for playing Tic-Tac-Toe.  I hope that you had fun!")

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #46 - There are problems with the game above.
Fix the problems.
1) A player could play on another players move or his own.
Check the spot to see if it is available.
Wrap up the input process in a loop.
2) A player could enter a row or column that is out of range.
Check and see if they are within the range.
Wrap up the input process in a loop.
3) Add a function to see if the row and col are in range,
and the spot is an empty spot.
return True or False
4) Call the function above in your main program to make

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #47 - You will be writing a program called Battle Ship.
You will move your ship through dangerous waters
and avoid hitting the destroyers.

# Battle Ship

# Put functions here
# ==================
def printBoard(board):
# code to print the board goes here
for row in range(0,len(board)):
for col in range(0, len(board[row])):
print(???????????, end='')
print()
return

def copyBoard(board):
newBoard = []
for row in range(0,len(board)):
newRow = []
for col in range(0, len(board[row])):
newRow.append(board[row][col])
newBoard.append(newRow)

return newBoard

def moveDestroyersDown(board):
# You will need to start at the last row and move all
# Distroyers off the board (set them to ' ').  Then
# continue by moving all Destroyers down by one
# When you move a destroyer down, erase it from it's
# current position, and then assign it to the row
# below.

# this clears the bottom row as these destroyers
# leave the area, or you could wrap them around.
lastRow = len(board) - 1
for col in range(0,len(board)):
board[lastRow][col] = ' '

shipIsHit = False

# Now move all the destroyers down 1 row
# but first check to see if the ship is
# in that spot.  If so, set shipIsHit to True.
# So, loop through all the rows for the outside loop
# Then loop through all the columns on the row (indexed loop)
# Inside the inner loop check to see if you have a destroyer,
# and if so see if it would hit your ship, and if so
# set shipIsHit to true.  Then move the destroyer down.
# DO NOT CHANGE THE row variable, just use:
# board[row+1][col] = 'D'
?????????
?????????
?????????
?????????

return shipIsHit

# Main program goes here
# ==================

# here is the board
row0 = ['D', ' ', 'D', ' ', 'D' , 'D', 'D', ' ']
row1 = ['D', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , 'D', ' ', ' ']
row2 = ['D', ' ', 'D', ' ', ' ' , 'D', ' ', ' ']
row3 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , 'D', ' ', 'D']
row4 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' ']
row5 = [' ', 'D', ' ', 'D', 'D' , ' ', ' ', ' ']
row6 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' ']
row7 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' ']
row8 = [' ', ' ', ' ', ' ', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' ']
row9 = [' ', ' ', ' ', '*', ' ' , ' ', ' ', ' ']

board = []
board.append(row0)
board.append(row1)
board.append(row2)
board.append(row3)
board.append(row4)
board.append(row5)
board.append(row6)
board.append(row7)
board.append(row8)
board.append(row9)

originalBoard = copyBoard(board)

shipRow = 9
shipCol = 3

print("Battle Ship")
print()
print()

while True:  # outer loop of game to play another game

# we will create a board for this game (optional)
# just reset it back to the beginning
# (call a function to do this)
board = copyBoard(originalBoard)

# reset the ship's coordinates shipRow and shipCol
shipRow = 9
shipCol = 3

# print the board
printBoard(board)

while True: # inner loop that plays 1 game

# Ask the user how to move (left, up, right, or none)
print("You can move left (l), up (u), right (r), none (n), or quit (q)")
move = input("Enter how to move (l, u, r, n, q): ")

# handle the move if possible
# if this move attempts to go out of bounds, ignore it and
# stay put.
if move == 'l':
board[shipRow][shipCol] = ' '
shipCol = shipCol - 1
if board[shipRow][shipCol] == 'D':
print("You lose!!!")
break
board[shipRow][shipCol] = '*'
elif move == 'u':
board[shipRow][shipCol] = ' '
shipRow = shipRow - 1
if board[shipRow][shipCol] == 'D':
print("You lose!!!")
break
board[shipRow][shipCol] = '*'
elif move == 'r':
board[shipRow][shipCol] = ' '
shipCol = shipCol + 1
if board[shipRow][shipCol] == 'D':
print("You lose!!!")
break
board[shipRow][shipCol] = '*'
elif move == 'q':
break

# Now move the destroyers down

shipIsHit = moveDestroyersDown(board)

# Now see if your ship got hit
if shipIsHit == True:
print("You lose!!!")
break

# print the new board
# call a function
printBoard(board)

# check for a win (reaching row 0) and
# if so, print out a win message and then break the loop
if shipRow == 0:
print("You win!!!  Great job!!!")
break

print()
print()

print()
print()
playAgain = input("Would you like to play another game? (y or n)")
if playAgain == "n":
break  # breaks out of outer loop

print()
print()
print("Thank you for playing Battle Ship.  I hope that you had fun!")

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #48 - You will be writing a program called Pascal's Triangle.
You will need to generate Pascal's Triangle and then
print it out.  Store the numbers in a 2 dimensional array.
The first column is always a 1.  You will need to generate
elements starting at row 1.
1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0
1  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0
1  3  3  1  0  0  0  0  0
1  4  6  4  1  0  0  0  0
1  5 10 10  5  1  0  0  0
etc.

def printMatrix(matrix):
# print the matrix in formatted form

print()

def fillMatrixWithAllZeroes(matrix):
# we will now create all the rows and fill them with 0's
for row in range(0,9):
# creates an empty array
array = []
for col in range(0,9):
array.append(0)
# appends the array as a new row for the matrix
matrix.append(array)

def fillMatrix(matrix):
# fill the matrix
for row in range(1,9):
for col in range(1,9):
# change the row,col element to be
# the sum of the element directly above
# plus the element to the left of the element above
# matrix[row][col] = ??????

# MAIN PROGRAM
print("Pascal's Triangle")
print()
print()

# this creates an empty matrix
matrix = []

# we will now fill it with 0's
# call a function ???????

# fill the first column with 1's.
# use a single loop
# look at the pattern below and
# notice what is changing (the row)
matrix = 1
matrix = 1
matrix = 1
matrix = 1
# etc.

# now we can put the correct numbers into the array
# for the other elements

# now print the matrix
# call your method from above

print()
print()
print("Thank you for printing Pascal's Triangle.  I hope that you had fun!")

############################################################################
Arrays 2D
############################################################################

Program #49 - You will be writing a program that has an encrypt and
decrypt function.
You will be using a 2D array (or matrix) to hold the
translations.
We will only use capital letters.

encryptMatrix
A B C D
E F G H
I J K L
M N O P
Q R S T
U V W X
Y Z . (space)

decryptMatrix
Y Z . (space)
U V W X
Q R S T
M N O P
I J K L
E F G H
A B C D

def encrypt(s):
# write the code to encrypt s (s is a String)
# Example 1:  "ABCD" would become "YZ. "
# Example 2:  "CAR" would become ".YJ"

return ???

def decrypt(s):
# write the code to encrypt s (s is a String)
# Example 1:  "YZ. " would become "ABCD"
# Example 2:  ".YJ" would become "CAR"

return ???

# MAIN PROGRAM
print("Encrypt - Decrypt")
print()
print()

while True:
# Ask the user to enter a string with all capitals
s = ???????

# if s is empty, then break

# Encrypt the String
e = ??????

# print e with a message
print("The encrypted string is " + e)

# decrypt e
s = decrypt(e)

# print s with a message
print("The decrypted string is " + s)

print()
print()
print("Thank you encrypting and decrypting.  I hope that you had fun!")

############################################################################
Arrays 1D
############################################################################

Program #50 - You will be writing a program that is an English to
Spanish dictionary.

# write a class to hold the english word and the spanish word(s).
# include an init constructor which receives the english word and
# the corresponding spanish word(s).  Your program should find the
# word whether it is in upper or lower case or a combination.
# You can convert to other languages as well.

class Word:
# put your init function here

# MAIN PROGRAM

# this creates an empty
words = []

word = Word("House", "Casa")
words.append(word)

word = Word("Cat", "Gato, Gata")
words.append(word)

# you can use google to look up more words

print("English to Spanish Dictionary")
print()
print()

found = False

while True:
# ask the user to enter the english word that they want to find
# in order to get the corresponding spanish word
englishWord = ????("Enter the English word: ")

if englishWord == "":
break

found = False

word = ""

# loop through the words and see if you find
#   it, and if you do, set word to refer to
#   the word object that you found, and set
#   found to True

if found == True:
# print out the spanish word
else:

print()

print()
print("Goodbye!")

############################################################################
Arrays 1D
############################################################################

Program #51 - You will be writing a program that plays BlackJack.

# MAKE SURE THAT YOU LEAVE THE COMMENTS IN PLACE

import random

# This class holds information about one card
# The class name should be Card  (with a capital C)
class ????:

def ????????(self, suit, kind, value):
self.suit = ????
self.kind = ????
self.value = ?????

def getKindOfCard(self):
return self.?????

def getCardValue(self):
return self.?????

# END OF class

# This function creates all the cards for one suit
def createCards(cards, suit):
for c in range(1,14):
if c < 10:
card = Card(suit, str(c), c)
elif c == 10:
card = Card(suit, "Jack", 10)
elif c == 11:
card = Card(suit, "Queen", 10)
elif c == 12:
card = Card(suit, "King", 10)
elif c == 13:
card = Card(suit, "Ace", 11)

# We should now add this card to our cards array
cards.??????(card)
# end of for loop
# END OF function

# THIS function can print any list of cards
# It can print the playersHand, the dealersHand, or all the cards in the deck
# You simply pass the appropriate list of cards to this function when you call it
def printCards(cards):
for card in ?????: # for each loop (for each card in the cards array)
print("%-10s %-10s" % (card.suit, card.kind))
print()

# This will get 1 card from the cards list (The deck of cards)
def getACard(cards):
# we will get a random card from the list of cards
x = random.randrange(0, len(cards)) # finds the position of a random card

card = cards[x]  # card will now refer to this card object

del cards[x]  # we will now remove it from the cards list

return card

# END OF getACard

# This will get the sum of all the cards in some hand of cards
def getHandValue(cards):

# We need to find the sum of all the card values
sum = ?
for card in cards:
sum = ??? + card.getCardValue()
return ???

# MAIN PROGRAM

# We create an empty cards list
cards = ??

# This will create all the cards
for suit in ['Hearts', 'Diamonds', 'Spades', 'Clubs']:
createCards(cards, suit)

# print(len(cards))

# uncomment the line below if you want to see all of your cards
# printCards(cards)

print ('Blackjack')
print()
print()

# The playersHand will be empty to start.
playersHand = ??

# The dealersHand will be empty to start.
dealersHand = ??

# You have not won yet nor have you lost yet.
wins = ?
losses = ?

# Let's start playing the game of BlackJack
while True:

# Set both the player's hand and the dealer's hand to hold nothing
playersHand = ??
dealersHand = ??

# get 2 cards for the player
card = getACard(cards)
playersHand.append(card)
card = getACard(cards)
playersHand.append(card)

# get 2 cards for the dealer and add them to the dealersHand
card = ??????(?????)
dealersHand.?????(??????)
card = ??????(?????)
dealersHand.??????(?????)

while True:
# call the function printCards() and pass to it playersHand
???????(???????)

# Ask the user if they want another card
pickACard = ?????("Do you want another card (y or n)? ")

# See if pickACard is equal to "y"
if ???????? ?? ???:
# get another card from the cards array
card = getACard(?????)

# Now add this card to the playersHand
playersHand.append(card)

if getHandValue(dealersHand) < 16:
# get another card from the cards array
card = ???????(??????)

# Now add this card to the dealersHand
dealersHand.??????(????)

# get the hand value of the playersHand
if ??????????(???????) > 21:
print()
break

# See if pickACard is equal to "n"
?????????
print()
break

print()

# END OF WHILE loop

print()

while getHandValue(dealersHand) < 16:
# get a card from the deck of cards
card = getACard(?????)
dealersHand.append(card)

# Get the value of the player's hand
playersHandValue = ???????(???????)

# Get the value of the dealer's hand
dealersHandValue = ????????(????????)

# print out who wins for each of the following cases
# and print out the hand value for the player and the dealer
# Also add 1 to the wins if you win
# Add 1 to the losses if you lose
if playersHandValue <= 21 and playersHandValue > dealersHandValue:
???? print out who won
print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue)
print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue)
wins = ??????
elif playersHandValue <= 21 and dealersHandValue > 21:
???? print out who won
print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue)
print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue)
wins = ??????
elif playersHandValue <= 21 and playersHandValue == dealersHandValue:
???? print out who won
print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue)
print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue)
losses = ??????
elif playersHandValue > 21 and dealersHandValue > 21:
???? print out who won
print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue)
print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue)
elif dealersHandValue <= 21:
???? print out who won
print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue)
print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue)
losses = ????????
else:
print("Dealer wins!")
print("Player's hand value:", playersHandValue)
print("Dealer's hand value:", dealersHandValue)
losses = ????????

print()
print("Wins:", ????, " Losses:", ?????)
print()
print()

# Ask the user if they want to play another game
answer = ?????("Do you want to play another game (y or n)? ")
print()

# See if the answer is 'n' and if so break the loop
???????

print()
print("Thanks for playing Blackjack!!!")
print()
print("Goodbye!")

############################################################################
Arrays 1D
############################################################################

Program #52 - You will be writing a program that creates some picture.

A sample python program with turtle graphics
# allows us to access the turtle modules or code
import turtle

# creates the Turtle object
t = turtle.Turtle()
t.color("red")
t.shape("turtle")
t.pensize(5)

# the code will execute with n having values
# that keep changing each time through the loop
# n will be 10, 20, 30, 40, 60
n = 10
while n <= 40:
# the blocked code gets executed for each
# value of n
print("We will draw a circle with the radius of",n)
t.circle(n)
n = n+10

print()
print(n)

# A simple turtle graphics program
import turtle

t = turtle.Turtle()
t.shape("turtle")
t.pensize(5)

u = input("Would you like me to draw a shape? Type yes or no: ")
if u == "yes":
t.circle(50)
elif u == "no":
print("Okay")
else:

for c in ['red', 'green', 'yellow', 'blue']:
# the blocked code gets executed for each
# value of c
t.pendown()
t.color("green", c)
t.forward(75)
t.left(90)
t.forward(50)
t.penup()
t.forward(50)

t.home()
t.pendown()
t.color('red','blue')
t.circle(60)
t.dot(30)

n=10
while n <= 40:
# the blocked code gets executed for each
# value of n
t.circle(n)
n = n+10

``````
=================================
=================================

## End of Programming Assignments

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=================================

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